AP Biolgy - Campbell - Chapter Quiz - Chapter 42 - Animal Nutrition

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Section 1

Question Answer
When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.amino acids
When digested, fats are broken down into _____. both glycerol and fatty acids
Starch is a type of _____.polysaccharide
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.fructoses
Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?amylase
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.maltose
Protein digestion begins in the _____.stomach
What is the main component of gastric juice? water
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine
What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?hydrochloric acid
Secretin stimulates the _____ to secrete _____. pancreas ... bicarbonate
Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.pancreas ... pancreatic enzymes
The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.secretin
The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.cholecystokinin, or CCK
Bile is produced by the _____ and stored by the _____ until it is secreted into the small intestine.liver ... gall bladder

Section 2

Question Answer
Which one of the following is not something that must be provided in an animal's diet? oxygen
Which one of the following statements is false?Glycogen is a major fuel molecule for cells.
Leptin, an appetite regulator, is produced in the _____ and _____.adipose tissue ... high blood levels of leptin should lead to suppressed appetite
A breakfast cereal advertises that it contains essential vitamins and minerals. In this context, the word "essential" means _____. the nutrients must be supplied in the diet and cannot be made in the body
Which of the following are considered essential nutrients? (1) certain carbohydrates, (2) certain fatty acids, (3) certain amino acids, (4) cholesterol 2 and 3
In general, B vitamins function in your body as _____.coenzymes
Why is it important to consume B vitamins every day, but not A vitamins? Vitamin A can be stored by the body, but B vitamins cannot.
The fat-soluble vitamins include _____.vitamins A, D, E, and K
_____ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, as parts of certain enzymes, for normal muscle and nerve function, and for water balance.Minerals
Which one of the following statements about nutrition and digestion is true? Absorption involves monomers passing through intestinal walls.
Which one of the following statements is false?The last stage of food processing is absorption.
In vertebrates, food is moved along the length of the digestive system by _____.peristalsis
Chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the _____ with the action of _____.mouth ... salivary amylase
The tongue does all of the following except _____.secrete saliva
How is the stomach lining protected from the strongly acidic pH of its contents?Mucous cells secrete a protective lubricant into the stomach.
Which one of the following statements regarding protein digestion is false?Protein digestion involves pepsin, which comes from the chief cells in the stomach.
Which of the following might make the most effective anti-ulcer medication? a chemical that kills bacteria in the stomach
Acid chyme _____. contains food and gastric juice and moves through the pyloric sphincter
Which of the following is properly matched with its product? acid chyme backflow ... heartburn
In humans, most nutrient molecules are absorbed by the _____. small intestine
The liver and pancreas add their secretions to the partially digested food produced in the stomach, in the _____ of the small intestine.duodenum
The largest variety of digestive enzymes function in the _____.small intestine
The natural antacid produced to protect the intestines against stomach acid is produced by the _____. pancreas
Pepsin is an enzyme produced in the stomach that attacks proteins to break them down into smaller peptide molecules. Which one of the following statements about this enzyme is true?Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as basic secretions from the pancreas neutralize the pH.
Gallstone surgery sometimes requires that the gallbladder be removed. Patients are then advised to avoid ingesting large amounts of fat because _____.the gallbladder stores large quantities of bile, releasing it when fats reach the small intestine
The lungs consist of many small air sacs and blood vessels, which greatly increase surface area and improve the transfer of substances through their walls. The structures in the digestive system similar in function to these air sacs and capillaries are the _____.villi and microvilli
Which of the following is the actual absorptive surface within the lumen of the small intestine? microvilli
Researchers provided radioactively labeled food to a dog and traced the movement of absorbed molecules. Which type of molecule moved along a path different from all the others?fats
The lymphatic vessels in the villi absorb and transport _____.chylomicrons
Which one of the following organs of the digestive system does not produce any secretions that aid in digestion?large intestine
During some types of antibiotic treatments, patients often experience diarrhea because _____.the bacterial flora of the large intestine normally break down undigested organic material; after the bacteria have been killed by antibiotics, the undigested material increases the osmotic pressure, resulting in decreased water reabsorption
Symbiotic bacteria living in our large intestines provide us with _____.vitamins
What relation do indigestible plant fibers, prokaryotes, and vitamins have with the digestive system? These are the contents of the large intestine.
Which one of the following is not an adaptation to an herbivorous diet?sharp, pointed teeth
How would you expect the digestive system of a hawk to compare with that of a seed-eating sparrow? The sparrow's digestive system would be longer.