AP Bio Chapter 6 Vocab

mfann's version from 2015-10-07 04:56

Section 1

Question Answer
Active SiteRegion on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds and where the reaction occurs
ADPNucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP
Allosteric SiteSite on an allosteric enzyme that binds an effector molecule; binding alters the activity of the enzyme
ATPNucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy available for energy-requiring processes in cells
ATP Synthase ComplexComplex of proteins in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplast that produces ATP as hydrogen flows down a concentration gradient
Chemical EnergyEnergy associated with the interaction of atoms in a molecule
ChemiosmosisProcess by which mitochondria and chloroplasts use the energy of an electron transport chain to create a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation
CoenzymeNonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound
CofactorNonprotein adjunct required by an enzyme in order to function; many cofactors are metal ions, others are coenzymes
Competitive InhibitionForm of enzyme inhibition where the substrate and inhibitor are both able to bind to the enzyme's active site. Only when the substrate is at the active site will product form

Section 2

Question Answer
Coupled ReactionsReactions that occur simultaneously; one is an exergonic reaction that releases energy, and the other is an endergonic reaction that requires and input of energy in order to occur
DenaturedLoss of an enzyme's normal shape so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH and temperature
Electron Transport ChainPassage of electrons along a series of membrane-bound electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP
Endergonic ReactionChemical reaction that requires an input of energy; opposite of exergonic reaction
EnergyCapacity to do work and bring about change; occurs in a variety of forms
Energy of ActivationEnergy that must be added in order for molecules to react with one another
EntropyMeasure of disorder or randomnessq
EnzymeOrganic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape
Enzyme InhibitionMeans by which cells regulate enzyme activity; may be competitive or noncompetitive inhibition
Exergonic ReactionChemical reaction that releases energy; opposite of endergonic reaction

Section 3

Question Answer
Free EnergyUseful energy in a system that is capable of performing work
HeatType of kinetic energy; captured solar energy eventually dissipates as heat in the environment
Induced Fit ModelChange in the shape of an enzyme's active site that enhances the fit between the active site and its substrate(s)
Kinetic EnergyEnergy associated with motion
Laws of ThermodynamicsTwo laws explaining energy and its relationships and exchanges. The first, called the "Law of Conservation", says that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Laws of Thermodynamics 2The second law says that energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy
Mechanical EnergyA type of kinetic energy, such as walking or running
Metabolic PathwaySeries of linked reactions, beginning with a particular reactant and terminating with an end product
MetabolismAll of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell during growth and repair
NAD+Coenzyme of oxidation-reduction that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADH + H+ as oxidation of substrates occurs. During cellular respiration, NADH carries electrons to the electron transport chain in mitochondria

Section 4

Question Answer
NADP+Coenzyme of oxidation-reduction that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADPH + H+. During photosynthesis, NADPH participate in the reduction of carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate
Noncompetitive InhibitionForm of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor binds to an enzyme at a location other than the active site; while at this site, the enzyme shape changes, the inhibitor is unable to bind to its substrate, and no products form
OxidationLoss of one or more electrons from an atom or molecule; in biological systems, generally the loss of hydrogen atoms
Potential EnergyStored energy as a result of location or spatial arrangement
ProductSubstance that forms as a result of a reaction
ReductionGain of electrons by an atom or molecule with a concurrent storage of energy; in biological systems, the electrons are accompanied by hydrogen ions
RibozymeRNA molecule that can catalyze chemical reactions
SubstrateReactant in a reaction controlled by an enzyme
VitaminEssential requirement in the diet, needed in small amounts. Vitamins are often part of conenzymes

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