AP 4.9 Lecture

kylerigonan's version from 2015-04-21 06:15


Question Answer
What is the microscopic anatomy of the thyroid glandfollicle, parafollicular cells, follicular cells, lumen, colloid
what does follicular cells release?follicular cells release thyroglobulin (glycoprotein) from the smooth ER and the golgi
What does the parafollicular cells makecalcitonin
What is the colloid made of? precursor of of T3/T4 = thyroglobulin and iodine
how is iodine made?from diet Iodide transcytose to the lumen through the follicular cell
What is the difference between T3 and T4There is more T4 made but T3 is stronger
why does T3/T4 effect many things?they increase metabolic reactions. The more/less reactions in the body will indirectly cause many changes
how is thyroid hormone made?Thyroglobulin (from RER & Golgi) exocytose the lumen. Once Iodide is transcytose into the lumen, too, it will =colloid. Colloid endocytose and combined with a lysosome and results in T3/T4
How is T3/T4 transported in the blood?TBG's
What can override the negative feedback for TH?Pregnancy (needs metabolic rate increased) and exposure to extreme cold (Increase metabolic rate cause heat)
what is calcitonin?calcitonin is made by the parafollicular cells and lowers blood calcium levels by inhibit osteoclast and stimulate Ca absorption in bone.. stimulated by high calcium in the blood
what is parathyroid hormone?chief cells make PTH which increase blood Ca by [1] stimulating osteoclast [2] kidneys Ca reabsorb [3] intestines to absorb dietary Ca
What are the 2 glands in the adrenal gland and their difference?Adrenal medulla (neural) and adrenal cortext (cellular)
generally, what does each layer of adrenal cortex make?all make corticosteroids..
specifically what does each layer of adrenal cortex make? G: mineralocorticoids (salts) F: glucocorticoids (sugars) R: Gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)
what does aldosterone do?Na reabsorption and K+ excretion in kidneys
controls of aldosterone[1] renin-angiotensin made when low BP
[2] High blood K and low blood Na
[3] ACTH (During stress) causing CRH release
[4] ANP made when high BP (INHIBITION)
aldosterone and its effected part in adrenal gland?glomerulosa
what is glucocorticoids?aka cortisol made in the zona fasciculata and regulates sugar and BP. Cortisol will activate [1] gluconeogenesis (make glucose from fats and proteins)
[2] Increase blood glucose, Amino Acids, and Fatty acids that'll cause an inhibit of the immune system *remember antibodies = proteins
how is cortisol made?ongoing stress detected from the hypothalamus that release CRH into the CORTICOTROPHS and releases ACTH which target the adrenal glands (specifically the the zona fasciculata) to make cortisol which will stimulate nucleogenesis (make glucose from proteins and fats) -> causes the increase in glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids and also inhibit immune system because antibodies are proteins