AP 4.7 Lecture

kylerigonan's version from 2015-04-19 01:53


Question Answer
what glands are endocrine and exocrine? pancreas and gonads
what is exocrine?products released other than into blood
what features of the pancreas are the exocrine and endocrine partsacinar cells made digestive enzymes known as the pancreatic juice.. pancreatic islets produced hormones (insulin and glucagon)
exocrine and endocrine part of the gonads sperm/egg hormones produced
what are hormones? chemical messengers that travel through the blood
what are the 2 classes of hormonesamino acid based or lipid based
amino acid based hormones amines, thyroxines, peptides, and proteins
steroid based hormonesgonadal and adrenocortical hormones
how do amino acid based hormones get to receptorsamino-acid based hormones (except for thyroid hormone) will attach to receptors (on PM) that will cause an activation of the G protein located in the cytoplasm then activates CAMP then turns on enzymes that activates the cell
how do cholesterol based hormones get to receptorscholesterol based hormones' receptors are located inside the cell so the hormones can diffuse through the PM (like to like) and attaches to the receptor that will activate genes in the nucleus making proteins in the DNA
what hormones are water soluble basedall amino acid based hormones except thyroid hormone
what hormones are lipid solublesteroid and thyroid hormone
how are hormones removed from the body? (4)kidney, liver, half life, and degrading enzymes
what are 3 types of ways that a gland can be stimulated?humoral(change in fluid chemistry), neural(nerve), and hormonal(hormones from another gland)
what is the difference between posterior lobe and anterior lobe?posterior lobe is neural connection and anterior lobe is cellular
what is a nucleus?in the CNS it is a group of neuron cell bodies
what is a tract?a group of axons in the CNS
how do hypothalamus and posterior connect? *specificshypothalamus makes a hormone which travel down the hypothalamic hypophyseal tract into the posterior lobe which enters the blood there
what are the 2 set of nuclei in the hypothalamus that connects to the posterior lobe?supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nerve
summarize the activity of the supraoptic nucleus?when body is dehydrated the hypothalamus will release ADH which will travel down the hypothalamic hypophyseal tract into the posterior lobe which contains blood vessels. ADH will target kidneys to retain water in the body.
summarize the activity of the paraventricular nucleusoxytocin is release from the hypothalamus which will go through the hypothalamic hypophyseal tract into the post. lobe. Oxytocin will target [1] the uterus to contract [2] mammary glands to release milk [3] target the brain =intimacy
how is growth hormone released?SpecificsHypothalamus will release GHIH or GHRH into the hypophyseal portal system. First capillary bed called the primary capillary plexus (in the hypothalamus) will then go into the hypophyseal portal vein (in the infundibulum) then last it will enter the secondary capillary plexus (in the anterior lobe). Once in the anterior lobe, it will target the somatotrophs causing the release of growth hormone into the blood target the bones and muscles to grow

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