AP 4.23 Lecture

kylerigonan's version from 2015-05-10 20:47


Question Answer
When urine leaves kidneys, does it get altered?No
What are the functions of kidneys?Filter blood, regulation of blood volume, change chemical makeup, make erythropoietin, activation of Vitamin D
what is vitamin D's role in body?kidney's activate Vitamin D production which allows us to absorb calcium from diet into blood
Where does kidneys lie in the body?Retroperitoneal position
What happens to kidneys when blood O2 is low?Kidney will make erythropoeitin which is released then enters Red Bone Marrow to stimulate creation of RBCs
What are the 3 layers of covering of the kidneys?Renal capsule (deepest), adipose capsule (for cushioning), and Renal fascia (CT; anchor kidneys)
what is a nephron?is the functional unit of the kidney that consists of renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, and distal convoluted tubule.
where does filtration occur in the kidneys?at the glomerulus
what causes filtration to occur in the kidney?pressure
what is the filtration membrane? filter between blood and interior of the glomerular capsule. 1) fenestrated endothelium 2) basement membrane 3) visceral layer of the GC w/ podocytes
what type of ET on PCT?Simple cuboidal ET
function of PCTreabsorption, return materials into blood from filtrate, active transport of Na (Na is contransport for Glucose and Amino Acids)
Why is the size different in the thin limb and thick limb of loop of henle?thin limb made of simple squamous ET and thick limb made of simple cuboid ET
Where is the work done in the loop henle?thick limb, actively pumps Na into medulla (out of filtrate into CT of medulla).. Pumps Na out but water is impermeable... so high Na gradient and filtrate is dilute
ET in DCT?simple cuboidal ET, no microvilli, clean lumen
Function of DCTpumps Na out of filtrate but will change water permability based on hormones
Name the hormones and the effect at the DCTADH and Aldosterone will increase water permeability and ANP will decrease water permeability
ET at collecting duct?Simple cuboidal ET
what cells are located in the collecting duct?(1) intercalated cells which are puffy cuboidal cells with microvilli (2) and Principal cells which are cuboidal cells without microvilli
what is the function of the intercalated cellsmaintains acid-base balance in blood
what does intercalated cells do if blood is too acidic?intercalated cells will (1) secrete H+ to urine from blood and (2) reabsorb more HCO3
secretion vs reabsorptionsecretion=blood to urine.... reabsorption=urine to blood
what does intercalated cells if blood is too alkaline?intercalated cells will (1) reabsorb more H+ to urine from blood and (2) secrete HCO3
what is the primary target of ADH?ADH targets principal cells to keep water in blood. ADH targets principal cells that will open aquaporins in collecting duct and follow salty medulla
ADH and hydrationno ADH made and channels will stay closed
why is the Na gradient needed for ADHADH works because of the Na gradient. Since aquaporins are channels, the gradient allows for a osmotic gradient to occur
What are the 2 groups of cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatusmacula densa and granular cells(juxtaglomerular cells)
what is the role of the macula densamonitors Na and Cl inside filtrate
what is the role of granular/juxtaglomerular cells?modify smooth muscle that produces renin
where is macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells located?macula densa located inside filtrate and granular/juxtaglomerular cells are located inside afferent arteriole