AP 3.24 Lecture

kylerigonan's version from 2015-04-20 09:41


Question Answer
What is the ANS Nerve supply in stomach?[Sympathetic] 1-Splanchnic nerve and 2-Celiac Plexus that will decrease the activity in the stomach...... [Parasympathetic] Vagus Nerve (CN10) that will increase activity at the stomach (churning, contractions, more chemicals delivered)
What is the blood supply of the stomach?Celiac Trunk (arterial supply) and Veins of the Hepatic Portal System that will drain blood from stomach to liver
Name each of the cells in the gastric glands and pits?Mucus neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, and enterendrocrine cells.
Mucus neck cellslocated in the gastric pits and glands and secretes mucus that is thin and slightly acidic
Parietal cellsinvolved in the making of HCl and also makes intrinsic factor
what is intrinsic factor?intrinsic factor made by the parietal cells is needed for the absorption of the vitamin B12 that allows for the production of RBC
Chief cellsmakes pepsinogen (inactive pepsin until combined with HCl) and also makes gastric lipase
role of pepsin and gastric lipasepepsin=digest proteins and gastric lipase=digest lipids/fats
gastric lipase accounts for _________% of fat digestion30%
where is gastrin made and what is its rolegastrin is produced by the enteroendrocrine cells in stomach that will enter blood then target stomach and stimulate secretion and churning
what causes increased activity at the stomach? NS and Hormonalparasympathetic N.S. and Hormone (intestinal gastrin)
How is HCl made?CO2 from the lamina propia diffuses into the parietal cell and combines with H2O to create H2CO3 which turns into H+ and HCO3-..HCO3 goes into the blood (lamina propia)... H+ goes into the lumen in exchanged for K+.. Cl- from the interstitial fluid diffuses across parietal cell to the lumen and combines with H+..
What is the alkaline tide?blood leaving the stomach is more basic because of HCO3 entering blood from the parietal cell
What is a mucosal barrier?mucus cap cells secrete mucus which will trap bicarbonate ions (HCO3) near the surface of the epithelial cells as protection
what is the phases of regulation that control gastric secretion ?controls the activity of stomach. First, CEPHALIC PHASE. Second, GASTRIC PHASE, and last INTESTINAL PHASE.
what is the Cephalic (reflex) phase and what causes + and - regulation of gastric secretion?BEFORE food arriving at stomach. THINKING.. Will + or - stomach secretion
what excites the stomach in the gastric phase regulation of gastric secretion? Hormonal and NSgastrin activated by chemicals in food AND parasympathetic N.S. fibers (Vagus Nerve) reflex nerve caused by stretch of stomach
what is reflex mediated receptive relaxation?every time you swallow your stomach relaxes that is coordinated by the swallowing center of the brain
what is gastric accommodation?when you smooth muscle is stretched it will relax = plasticity of smooth muscle
what are the 2 responses of the stomach to filling called?[1] Reflex-mediated receptive relaxtion [2] Gastric Accommodation
what effect does distension and gastrin have in the stomach?stretch of stomach and gastrin release will cause a increase in force of contraction
what is the role of pyloric sphincter?controls what enters duodenum or stays in the stomach. larger molecules will stay longer for further processing
where are stretch receptors and chemoreceptors locatedmouth, stomach, and small intestines
what is the effect of chyme entering the duodenum[1]stretch receptors and chemoreceptors respond to strech and chemical signals *both are reflex NS [2] enterogastric reflex and enterogastrins (from duodenal enteroendocrine that released CCK, Secretin, and VIP) will inhibit gastric secretion AND duodenal filling
what does the main pancreatic duct carry?pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate
what are ways that the small intestines increase surface areaplicae circulares (mucosa and submucosa folds) , villi (folds of mucosal tissue), microvilli (plasma membrane of surface cells)
what is intestinal juice?intestinal product from the intestines due to response to stretch receptors and chemoreceptors.. juice is slightly basic, mostly water, and contain mucus (goblet cells)
what is intestinal mucosasimple columnar ET with microvilli on surface.. the collection of simple columnar ET is called absorptive cells
what are Brush Border Enzymes? Name them. they are made by the absorptive cells and is the final chemical digestion.. Enteropeptidase, Glucoamylase, Lactase, sucrase, maltase, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and nuucleosidase
what is enteropeptidase?activates trypsinogen (from pancreas) into trypsin (active) digests proteins
Name the enzymes that digests sugar last?glucoamylase, lactase, sucrase, and maltase
Name the enzymes that last digest proteinsaminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase
what is the final digestion of nucleic acidsnucleosidase
name the enterendocrine cells and jobs+ stomach = intestinal gastrin ..... - stomach = CCK, Secretin, and VIP
what do paneth cells secretedefensins (antimicrobial protein) and lysozyme (antibacterial enzyme)

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