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Antipsychoticsss

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olola's version from 2016-12-02 03:36

Section

Question Answer
____ produces lowest incidence of Tardive DyskinesiasClozapine (atypical prototype)
neuroleptic malignant syndrome or hyperthermia are adverse effects associated withAntipsychotics (may be helped with Dantrolene or Bromocriptin)
agranulocytosis is serious adverse effect ofClozapine (atypical prototype), thus is considered "second line" antipsychotic drug
treatment for Tourette'sPimozide (a Diphenylbutpiperidine antipsychotic drug)
"well-established" AntipsychoticsPhenothiazines, Thioxanthenes, Butyrophenones
Dental implications for Antipsychoticsdrug interactions with CNS depressants, tardive dyskinesia, antmuscarinic (xerostomia), decreased leukocyte counts increasing susc to infections, orthostatic hypotension, epi reversal with systemic application
first gen antidepressantsTCAs, MAO-Is: have broad spectrum of action, delayed onset, lots of side effects
most recent Antidepressant classificationSSRIs: greater specificity, fewer side effects
mechanism of action of TCAsmodified phenothiazine structure, 3 rings, block reuptake of serotonin and norepi increasing their concentrations
prototype TCAImipramine
TCAs produce antidepressant effects _____ after administration2-3 weeks (although immediately increase synaptic NTs, no immediate antidepressant effect)
examples of MAO-IsPhenelzine, Moclobemide, Tranylcypromine
MAOIsnonspecific inhibitors of MAO, less effective and more side effects than TCAs, used for atypical/refractory depression
this drug has interaction with Tyraminefood interactions (wine, cheese)- potentially fatal
serotonin syndromeinteraction with MAOIs & SSRIs
______ is only 2nd/3rd Gen Antidepressant with MINIMAL Cardiovascular effects and will cause Weight LOSSBupropion
Fluoxetine aka ____ is a Prozac; SSRI
treats Nocturnal enuresis in childrenImipramine (TCA)
treats chronic pain syndrome, trigeminal neuralgiaAmitriptyline, Doxepin - both are TCAs
treats InsomniaTrazodone
treats Psychotic depressionAmoxapine
treats OCDSSRIs
treats panic attacksMAOIs, SSRIs
rapid withdrawal syndromes associated withTCAs
T/F? Use of epi or levonordefrine is a concern for patients on MAOIs.False! Neither EP nor levonordefrine, when used with local anesthetics, is significantly potentiated by MAO inhibitors
T/F? Fluoxetine decreases metabolism of BDZ, such as diazepam, alprazolamtrue
most effective drug for mania, manic-depressionLithium salts mechanism of action not well-understood, low TI
Dermatologic effects, alopecia, metallic taste, salivary gland dysfunction are adverse effects associated with lithium salts
T/F? NSAIDs are a concern for patients taking lithium salts.True. NSAIDs decrease renal excretion, increasing its toxicity
T/F? Lithium salts may be teratogenic during first trimestertrue
examples of TCAsImipramine (prototype), Amitriptyline, Doxepin, Desipramine
R1= piperidine ring substitution; less sedationThioridazine, a phenothiazine antipsychotic
R2= substitution; highly potent with high extrapyramidal side effectsTrifluoperazine, a phenothiazine antipsychotic
Malignant hyperthermia most likely occurs in genetically susceptible patient exposed toDesflurane + depolarizing muscle relaxants
antipsychotic with "local anesthetic-like action"Chlorpromazine, decreases cardiac activity
Which 3 antipsychotic is also an effective anti-emetic via inhibition of the CRTZ in the brain?Chlorpromazine, Prochlorperazine, Droperidol
Atypical Antipsychotics such as Clozapine more selectively block ______ and _____ pathways; Clozapine specifically is more selective for blocking ___ & ___ receptors (also serotonin)Mesolimbic; Mesocortical; D1 & D4
T/F: Antipsychotics is used in the control of manic phase of bipolar disorder, hallucinations associated with alcohol withdrawal and hiccupstrue!
T/F: Antidepressants is used in the control of manic phase of bipolar disorder, hallucinations associated with alcohol withdrawal and hiccupsfalse
Antipsychotics mainly act as _____ receptor antagonistsDopamine (block effects of dopa)
Do patients with positive or negative symptoms have better success with pharmacotherapy?Positive
Prolonged use of what psychopharmacotherapeutic type of drug causes a decrease in leukocyte count?Antipsychotics
T/F: Classic Antipsychotics, such as Chlorpromazine, block nearly ALL dopa receptors widelyTrue (can induce Dystonia, Parkinson-like syndrome, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia)
Rank these phenothiazine substitution groups based on effectiveness: Piperazines, Piperidines, Aliphatics; Rank them based on anticholinergic effectsPiperAZINES > Aliphatics > PiperIDINES; reverse order for anticholinergic effects
T/F: Most antipsychotic drugs disrupt thermoregulation at high doses via hypothalamic effectsTrue
T/F: Antipsychotic agents can be useful for epinephrine reversalTrue (due to anti-adrenergic effects)
T/F: Benzodiazepines can be used in conjunction with antipsychotics for greater effectiveness of antipsychotic therapyTrue
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