Antimicrobial intro

britt611's version from 2017-01-25 20:36

Section 1

Question Answer
hydrophobic vs hydrophilichydrophobic- motlecules concentration in the bi-lipid cell membrane by layer, hydrophilic- molecules ten to concentrate in the blood, cytosol or other aqueous compartments
the more charged the molecule and the larger the molecule...the poorer its penetration across the membrane and physical barreires
What are 4 factors to consider when selecting a drugsite of infection, patient history, patient factors, cost of therapy
what are some patient factros that we need to consider when selecting a drugimmune system, renal dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction, poor perfusion, age, pregnancy, lactation
what are 3 facters in determining rational dosing?1. concentration depending killin (aminoglycosides), 2. time-depended killing, 3. post antibiotic effect
What are 3 spectras of antibioticsnarrow, extended, broad
should bactriostatic and bactericidal be factored in to the antibiotic selectionfor the most part NO! usually they will inhibit or kill the organisms at the same rate
When do bactericidal antibiotics have advantage?endocarditis, meningitis, febrile neutropenic
is chlorampenicol bacteriostatic or bactericidal?bacteriostatic
is penicillin bacteriostatic or bactericidal?bactericidal
Bacteriostaticstops bacteria from reproducing but does not kill them
bacteriocidalkills the bacteria

Section 2

Question Answer
Is monotherapy or combination therapy monotherapy
why is monotherapy the preferred method?cost, less side effects, doesnt need synergism, antagonism
what does combination therapy need to prevent resistance?synergism
what are 3 example of combination therapy that prevents resistance 1. rifampin + ethambutol + INH for TB, 2. Anti-pseudomonas penicillin + aminoglycosides, 3. 5-flucytosine + amphotericin B
Antagonist vs synergism Antagonist- they oppose each other, synergism = sum of the 2 effects are beneficial to each other
Which drugs have excellent (>90%) bio-availability of oral antibiotics Amoxicillin, cephalexin, quinolones, TMP-SMX, minocycline, doxycyline, chlorampenicol, metranidazole, fluconazole, clindamycin
which drugs have good (60-90%) bio-availability for oral routemost beta-lactams, macrolides
which oral antibiotics have poor (<60%) bio-availability vancomycin

Section 3

Question Answer
The 70S bacterial ribosome consists of ____and ___ subunits30 and 50
______ is an enzyme complex that makes mRNA from DNA templateRNA polymerase
the chromosomes of most bacteria are _____circular
________ are enzymes that regulate DNA supercoilinggyrase