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Antimicrobes

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Updated 2009-03-07 13:56

Antimicrobials

DrugMechinism
fosfomycininactivates phosphoenol pyruvate, halts muramic acid synth
isoniazid echinocandinscell wall synth inhibitor
azolesinhibit ergosterol synth by inhibiting lanosterol demethylase
triazole: fluconazole, itraconazolecan use systemically
allylamines: terbinafinetopical and systemic
imidazoles: clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazoleall but ketoconazole. only topical
polyenes: nystatin, amphotericin Bnystatin topical, ampho B systemic if severe
polymixinsextreme toxicity
acyclovirrequire bioactivation by viral DNA thymidine kinase, binds to nucleic acid polymerase
Pyrimidine analogszidovudine(thymidine) stavudine, lamivudine (cytosine)
Purine analogsdidanosine (adenine)
RifampinDNA dependent RNA polymerase
Metronidazolereduced only under anaerobic conditions -> free radicals
foscarnetpyrophosphate analog, Herpes, CMV, HIV
NNRTI - nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenzinhibit reverse transcriptase at other site
aminoglycosides30S require O2 for uptake, complex with ribosomal protein, misreads. The ONLY bacterialCIDAL protein synth inhibitor
Tetracycline30S require energy active transport. prevent access of tRNA to mRNA ribosome complex
clindamycin50S block peptide formation at A site
macrolids50S block tRNA release
Linezolid50S inhibit ribosome near peptidyl transferase
sulfonamides sulfonesPABA analogs dyhydropteroate synthetase
trimethoprim pyrimethamineDHFR inhibitor
isoniazid pyrazinamidepyridoxine analog for mycolic acid synthesis
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