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Antiemetics

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gefotusa's version from 2016-11-07 22:32

Section 1

Question Answer
What is bendadrylh1 receptor antagonist
What is bendarryl good at treating ?motion sickness, sedative for post-op use
T/F benadryl is effective for chemo ?false
T/F benadryl can pass the placenta barriertrue
What are 3 examples of h1 receptor antagonist -- antiemetics 1. diphenhydramine 2. promethazine 3. meclizine
What anti-emetic (anti-nausea) is a domaine antagonist ?Phenothiazine
How does phenothiazine work?inhibits CTX
What type of nausea is phenothiazine good for ?post-op, pregnancy and chemo
what type of nausea is phenothiazine not effective for ?motion sickness---which is due to acetylcholine mediated vestibular disturbances
what is the cause of of motion sickness?acetylcholine mediated vestibular disturbances
What is the MAIN phenothiazine?Promethazine/Pheregan
what is phenothiazine is a 5HT antagonist ?chlorpromazine
What is the anti-muscarinic that is used to treat motion sickness ?scopolamine
What are 4 antiemitics for treating cytotoxic/cancer drug induced emesis?1. metoclopramide/prempran 2. domperidone 3. ondansetron/zofran 4. cannabinoids/dronabinol
T/F Metoclopramide/prempran has central and peripheral effects true
what type of antagonist is Metoclopramide/prempran D2 and 5HT3 (at high dose) antagonist
What are the central effects of Metoclopramide/prempranacts on CTZ
What are the peripheral effects of Metoclopramide/prempranacts on GIT , causing release of Ach
What are side effects of Metoclopramide/prempranextrapyramidal symptoms and sedation
what antiemetic is a dopaminergic antagonist with some 5HT3 antagonist properties?domperidone
What antiemetic is the MOST common 5Ht3 antagonist ?ondasetron/zofran
What antiemetic causes mental confusion?cannabinoids/dronabinol
what is the best antiemetic Tx for nausea cannabionids/dronabionol
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
what are laxatives used for ?used to relieve constipation, anorectal disorders, colonoscopy
What is stimulate laxative stimulates ENTERIC nerve and INC fluid movement into LUMEN, increase peristalsis
What are 4 examples of stimulant laxatives ?1. castor oil 2. bisacodyl 3. senna 4. cascara
What is the active ingredient in caster oil?ricinoleic acid
what are saline cathartics?magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, glycerin and polyethylene glycol 3350
what its the saline cathartics used prior to endoscopy?Polyethylene glycol 3350
How do saline cathartics work ?create OSMOTIC pressure in intestine, INCREASE fluid volume and peristalsis
When would Mg sulfate be contraindicated ?in RENAL DISEASE
What 2 things are commonly given together for endoscopy ?dolcolax + polyethenle glycol
What are 2 examples of wetting agents/lubricants ?1. Docusate Na/Colase 2. Mineral oil/liquid petroleum
How does Docusate Na work ?lowering surface tension = increase penetration of fluid
How doe the bulk forming agents work?absorb water, expand , increase bulk in intestine , increase pressure and peristalsis with LOW systemic effect
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
What is Attapulgit?hydrated Mg, Al silicate with absorbent properties to bacteria, toxins and drugs
What is attapulgi used to tx?non-specific effect for acute milk diarrhea
How do opioids work to prevent diarrhea ?promote Reabsorption of fluid and Decrease stool volume
What is the opiod that is usually given for diarrhea ?codeine
What is the opiod like drug that is long lasting and has peripheral effects ?loperamide/imodium
What are the adverse effects of loperamide/imodium?CNS depression , allergy and GI disturbances
What is the congener of meperidine with LESS addiciciton liability ?Diphenoxylate
What is Lomotil ?combo of dephenoxylate and atropine
what is the major cause of traveler's diarrhea ?infection by enteropathogens (e. coli, salmonella and shigella)
How do you treat and prevent traveler's dirarrah ?bismuth subsalicylate (pepto-bismol; prevention AND treatment), trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline
What does eye's syndrome cause ?liver and brain damage
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
What does GI stimulants stimulate ?Stimulate 1. GI smooth muscle motility (stimulate urinary tract)
What do GI stimulants help with ?helps with gastric hypo motility and urinary retention; often seen in those with gastric bypass surgery
What is the GI stimulant that is cholinergic drug ?bethanchol
what is the GI stimulate that releases Ach peripherally ?metoclparmide
what is metoclopramide useful for treating ?diabetic gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying)
What GI stimulant is related to metoclopramide and acts by facilitating GI motility by peripheral release of Ach cisapride
What is an antispasmodic?Decrease motility and spasm in GIT
What antispasmodic do you give with dietary fiber for IBS?loperamide
What are belladonna alkaloids useful for treating ?spastic disorders of GIT and adjunct therapy for IBS
What are the 2 major antispasmodics ?Dicyclamine and Propanethline
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the GIT effects of opiod analgesics ?cause constipation
What is the GIT effects of aspirin and other NSAIDS?gastric distress
What is the GIT effects of chloral hydrate ?GI irritation
What is the GIT effects of antibiotics ?GI distress
memorize

Section 6