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Antibiotics

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jasmine's version from 2017-03-19 12:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Penicillin End in "cillin"
Penicillin's are generally Bactericidal; block formation of bacterial cell wall
Penicillin's Spectrum Narrow and Extended
Penicillin's Treat Skin, dental, ear, respiratory, and urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea
Penicillin Side Effects Most common is Diarrhea. Others may include nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach. Severe hypersensitivity reactions more common after injections than after oral formulations
Penicillin Neuron Toxicity May cause convulsions in very high doses and in patients with renal impairment
Penicillin's Pregnancy Category B; No risks have been found in humans
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Section 2

Question Answer
Cephalosporin Start with "ceph" or "cef"
Cephalosporin's are generally Bactericidal; block formation of bacterial cell wall
Cephalosporin's Spectrum 1st generation-Narrow; 2nd generation-Intermediate; 3rd and 4th generation-Broad
Cephalosporin's Treat Pneumonia, strep throat, staph infections, tonsillitis, bronchitis, otitis media, skin and bone infections, gonorrhea, urinary tract infections, and also commonly used for surgical prophylaxis
Cephalosporin's Side Effects Most common is Diarrhea. Others may include nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach
Cephalosporin Hematologic Toxicity Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, abnormalities of platelet function and coagulation have been reported with certain cephalosporins
Cephalosporin's Pregnancy Category B; No risks have been found in humans
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Section 3

Question Answer
Macrolide End in "thromycin"
Macrolide's are generally Bacteriostatic; Bind with bacterial ribosomes to block protein synthesis
Macrolide's Spectrum Broad
Macrolide's Treat Respiratory tract infections (such as pharyngitis, sinusitis, and bronchitis), genital, gastrointestinal tract, and skin infections
Macrolide's Side Effects Most common is Diarrhea. Others may include nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach; infrequently temporary auditory impairment; injection may cause severe phlebitis
Macrolide's Use of Caution Patient with liver dysfunction
Macrolide's Pregnancy Category B; No risks have been found in humans; and C; Not enough research has been done to determine if these drugs are safe
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Section 4

Question Answer
Fluoroquinolone End in "floxacin"
Fluoroquinolone's are generally Bactericidal; kill bacteria by interfering with ability to make DNA
Fluoroquinolone's Spectrum Broad
Fluoroquinolone's Treat Urinary, skin, and respiratory tract infections (such as sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis)
Fluoroquinolone's Side Effects Most common is Diarrhea. Others may include nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach. Less common: Central nervous system abnormalities (headache, confusion and dizziness) and phototoxicity may occur. QT interval prolongation that may result in V-tech, tendinopathy and tendon rupture, and convulsions
Fluoroquinolone's Pregnancy Category D; Adverse reactions have been found in humans
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Section 5

Question Answer
Tetracycline End in "cycline"
Tetracycline's are generally Bacteriostatic; block bacterial protein synthesis
Tetracycline's Spectrum Broad
Tetracycline's Treat Respiratory tract, sinus, middle ear, urinary tract, skin, and intestine infections; Also used to treat gonorrhea, rocky mountain spotted fever, lyme disease, typhus, and most common current use is in the treatment of moderately severe acne and rosacea
Tetracycline's Side Effects Most common is Diarrhea. Others may include nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach (including cramps or burning of the stomach), esophageal ulceration, sore mouth or tongue; Can also cause skin photosensitivity; Doxycycline: malaria prophylaxis
Tetracycline's should not be used Children under the age of 8, and specifically during tooth development; May cause gray to yellow discoloration of actively forming teeth and deposition in growing bones
Tetracycline's Pregnancy Category D; Adverse reactions have been found in humans
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Section 6

Question Answer
Aminoglycoside End in "mycin" and "micin"
Aminoglycoside's are generally Bactericidal; Block from making proteins
Aminoglycoside's Spectrum Narrow
Aminoglycoside's may be used alongside Penicillins or cephalosporins to give a two-pronged attack on bacteria
Aminoglycoside's are easily broken down in the Stomach
Aminoglycoside's cannot be given by Mouth
Aminoglycoside's must be given by Injection
Aminoglycoside's Treat TB, severe infections of the abdomen and urinary tract, bacteremia and endocarditis. Used when other less toxic antibiotics are contraindicated or ineffective
Aminoglycoside's are often used in combination Other antibiotics
Aminoglycoside's Side Effects Irreversible ototoxicity (damage to ear and hearing), and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage)
Aminoglycoside's Pregnancy Category D; Adverse reactions have been found in humans
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