Anti infectives-2

allelipraise's version from 2017-11-13 03:55

Section 1

Question Answer
AlcoholsProtein and carbohydrate denaturation
AldehydesDirect, nonspecific alkylation of nucleophilic functional groups (amino, hydroxyl, and sulfhydryl) in proteins and nucleic acids
Phenols:Low conc Denaturation of bacterial proteins
Phenols:High conc Lysis of bacterial cell membranes
Oxidizing AgentsProtein denaturation and oxidation
IodophoresIodination of aromatic residues (phenylalanyl and tyrosyl) and oxidation (sulfhydryl groups)
Chlorine – Containing CompoundsChlorination of amide nitrogen atoms and the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins
Quaternary Ammonium CompoundsFormation of micelles by concentrating at the interface of immiscible solvents
MercurialsReacts with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in enzymes and other proteins to form covalent compounds of the type R – S – Hg – R
PreservativesInhibit the growth of bacteria
ParabensDisrupt membrane transport processes or by inhibiting synthesis of DNA and RNA or of some key enzymes

Section 2

Question Answer
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol, Wine Spirit)Synthesized by sulfuric – acid – catalyzed hydration of ethylene
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol, Wine Spirit) Antiseptic Preservative Mild sedative Mild Local anesthetic
Denatured Alcohol Ethanol rendered unfit for use in intoxicating beverages
Dehydrated Ethanol>99% w/w Ethanol Chemical reagent
Isopropyl AlcoholPrepared by sulfuric – acid – catalyzed hydration of propylene
Isopropyl AlcoholAntiseptic for the skin Disinfectant for surgical instruments Preservative
Ethylene OxideUsed to sterilize temperature – sensitive medical equipment
Completely denatured alcohol contains added wood alcohol (methanol) and benzene and is unsuitable for either internal or external use
Specially denatured alcoholethanol treated with one or more substances so that its use may be permitted for a specialized purpose.

Section 3

Question Answer
Formaldehyde Solutions (Formalin)>37% w/v Formaldehyde + Methanol Disinfectant
GlutaraldehydeSterilization of equipment and instruments that cannot be autoclaved

Section 4

Question Answer
Phenol / Carbolic Acid Protoplasmic poison
Phenol / Carbolic Acid Has local anesthetic effects
Phenol / Carbolic Acid Still used as antipruritic in phenolated calamine lotion (0.1% - 1% concentrations)
Liquefied Phenol Phenol + 10% Water Used in pharmaceutical preparations
P - chlorophenol Used with camphor in liquid petrolatum
P - chlorophenol External antiseptic External anti – irritant
P - chlorophenol Phenol CoefficientAbout 4
P – Chloro – m – xylenol (PC – MX; Metasep)
P – Chloro – m – xylenol Non-irritating antiseptic/keratolytic 2% Shampoo
P – Chloro – m – xylenol Treatment of Tinea (ringworm) infections such as athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis) and jock itch (Tinea cruris)
Hexachlorophene(Gamophen, Surgicon, pHisoHex)
Hexachlorophene Biphenol generally possesses greater potency than a monophenol
Cresol Phenol Coefficient: 2.5 Unpleasant Odor
Cresol Phenol Coefficient: 2.5 Unpleasant Odor
Amylmetacresol Component of Strepsils/Cresol derivative
Chlorocresol Slightly soluble in water Preservative in low concentrations
Thymol Isopropyl m – cresol
Thymol From Thymus vulgaris
Thymol Mild fungicide Treatment of Tinea infections
Eugenol 4 – Allyl – 2 – methoxyphenol
EugenolFrom clove oil
Eugenol Local anesthetic Local antiseptic Toothache remedy
Eugenol Phenol Coefficient: 4.4
Resorcinol m – Dihydroxybenze / Resorcin
Resorcinol Weak antiseptic Keratolytic agent
Resorcinol Used in the treatment of ringworm, eczema, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis
Resorcinol Phenol Coefficient: 0.4
Hexylresorcinol 4 – Hexylresorcinol
Hexylresorcinol Effective antiseptic (Bactericidal and fungicidal) Has surfactant properties Local anesthetic
Hexylresorcinol Phenol Coefficient: 98
Hexylresorcinol Component of Strepsils Can cause Laryngitis

Section 5

Question Answer
Carbamide Peroxide Urea + Hydrogen Peroxide
Carbamide Peroxide Commercial Preparation: 12.6% w/v carbamide peroxide in anhydrous glycerin
Carbamide Peroxide Antiseptic Disinfectant Treatment of oral ulcerations
Hydrous Benzoyl Peroxide Vanoxide / Oxy – 5 / Oxy – 10
Hydrous Benzoyl Peroxide Explosive in pure form 5% and 10% Concentration: Keratolytic and keratogenic Acne treatment
Povidone – iodine Betadine / Isodine / Polymer Polyvinylpyyrolidone
Povidone – iodine Soluble and releases iodine slowly
Povidone – iodine Presurgical disinfectant Treatment of local bacterial and fungal infetctions

Section 6

Question Answer
Halazone p – Dichlorosulfamoylbenzoic
Halazone Photosensitive compound
Halazone Drinking water disinfectant
Chloroazodin N, N – Dichlorodicarbonamidine / Azochloramid
Chloroazodin Unstable to light or heat Explodes above 155 °C Soluble in water
Chloroazodin Wound disinfectant Packing for dental caries Used in lavage and irrigiation
Oxychlorosene Sodium Clorpactin
Oxychlorosene Sodium Sodium Salt of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid + hypochlorous acid
Oxychlorosene Sodium Rapid action bactericidal action against Gram – positive and Gram – negative bacteria.

Section 7

Question Answer
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol, Wine Spirit)Alcohol
Denatured AlcoholAlcohol
Dehydrated EthanolAlcohol
Isopropyl AlcoholAlcohol
Ethylene OxideAlcohol
Formaldehyde Solutions (Formalin)Aldehyde
Phenol / Carbolic AcidPhenol
Liquefied PhenolPhenol
P - chlorophenolPhenol
P – Chloro – m – xylenol (PC – MX; Metasep)Phenol
Hexachlorophene Phenol
AmylmetacresolCresol Derivative
Carbamide PeroxideOxidizing Agent
Hydrous Benzoyl PeroxideOxidizing Agent
Povidone – iodine Iodophor
KMnO4Oxidizing Agent
Oxidizing AgentChlorine Containing Compound
ChloroazodinChlorine Containing Compound
Oxychlorosene SodiumChlorine Containing Compound

Section 8

Question Answer
Anti-infective agents used locally are called ger- micides, and within this classification, there are two pri- mary subtypes
Antisepticscompounds that kill (-cidal) or prevent the growth of (-static) microorganisms when ap- plied to living tissue.
disinfectantagent that prevents transmission of infection by the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms when applied to inanimate objects.
AntisepsisApplication of an agent to living tissue for the purpose of preventing infection
DecontaminationDestruction or marked reduction in the number or activity of microorganisms
DisinfectionChemical or physical treatment that destroys most vegetative microbes or viruses, but not spores, in or on inanimate surfaces
SanitizationReduction of microbial load on an inanimate surface to a level considered acceptable for public health purposes
SterilizationA process intended to kill or remove all types of microorganisms, including spores, and usually including viruses with an acceptably low probability of survival
PasteurizationA process that kills nonsporulating microorganisms by hot water or steam at 65°C–100°C