Anti-Infective Agents

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Section 1

Question Answer
Selective toxicityproperty of certain chemicals to kill one type of organism while not harming another.
group-IIB element mercury and the group-VA elements arsenic and antimony. Atoxyl (sodium arsanilate and arsphenamine)Anti-Infective agents were based on?
Mercurygroup-IIB element
Arsenic & Antimonygroup-VA elements
Gentian Violet / Methylene BlueCommon Dyes
Congeners of Quinine moleculeAnti-Infective
Therapeutic Indication/ Chemical type of the compound/ Biological PropertyClassification of Anti-Infective Agents

Section 2

Question Answer
Germicides Anti-infective agents that are used locally.
Antiseptics are compounds that kill (-cidal) or prevent the growth of (-static) microorganisms when applied to living tissue.
Disinfectants are agent that prevents transmission of infection by the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms when applied to inanimate objects.
AntisepsisApplication of an agent to living tissue for the purpose of preventing infection
Decontaminationinfection Destruction or marked reduction in the number or activity of microorganisms
DisinfectionChemical or physical treatment that destroys most vegetative microbes or viruses, but not spores, in or on inanimate surfaces
SanitizationReduction of microbial load on an inanimate surface to a level considered acceptable for public health purposes
SterilizationA process intended to kill or remove all types of microorganisms, including spores, and usually including viruses with an acceptably low probability of survival
PasteurizationA process that kills nonsporulating microorganisms by hot water or steam at 65°C–100°C
Structural Activity Relationship (SAR)Activity of a molecule or drug with an organism
Protein & Carbohydrate DenaturationMechanism of Action for Alcohols

Section 3

Question Answer
Ethyl Alcohol/ Wine SpiritEthanol (Another Name)
Ethanol clear, colorless, volatile liquid with a burning taste and a characteristic pleasant odor.
Ethanol a product of fermentation from grain and many other carbohydrates.
Ethanol prepared synthetically by the sulfuric-acid–catalyzed hydration of ethylene
Definition of Alcohol that substance known as ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirit of wine, from whatever source or whatever process produced, having a proof of 160 or more and not including the substances commonly known as whiskey, brandy, rum, or gin.”
Methylated Spirits/ Denatured Rectified SpiritDenatured Alcohol
Denatured Alcoholethanol that has been rendered unfit for use in intoxicating beverages by the addition of other substances.
Completely denatured alcoholcontains added wood alcohol (methanol) and benzene and is unsuitable for either internal or external use.
Specially denatured alcoholethanol treated with one or more substances so that its use may be permitted for a specialized purpose
Alcohol Used as external, as an antiseptic, preservative, mild counterirritant, or solvent.
Rubbing alcoholUsed as an astringent, rubefacient, and a mild local anesthetic.
EthanolUsed for injected near nerves and ganglia to alleviate pain. It has a low narcotic potency and has been used internally in diluted form as a mild sedative, a weak vasodilator, and a carminative.
The accepted bactericidal concentration of 70% alcohol is not supported by a study that discovered that the kill rates of microorganisms suspended in alcohol concentrations between 60% and 95% were not significantly different.
Concentrations below 60%are also effective, but longer contact times are necessary.
Concentrations above 70%can be used safely for preoperative sterilization of the skin.
Spirits/Tinctures/ FluildextractsPharmaceutical Uses of Alcohol in preparation of?
Absolute EthanolDehydrated Ethanol(Another Name)
Dehydrated Ethanol Contains not less than 99% w/w of C2H5OH
Dehydrated EthanolPrepared by azeotropic distillation of an ethanol– benzene mixture (water-free).
Dehydrated EthanolPrimarily used as Chemical Reagent or Solvent
there is always some benzene remaining from the azeotropic distillation that cannot be removed.Dehydrated Ethanol cannot be ingested (why?)
Spiritspreparations containing ethanol as the sole solvent
tinctureshydroalcoholic mixtures
fluidextractscontain alcohol as a cosolvent

Section 4

Question Answer
Isopropanol/ 2-propanolIsopropyl Alcohol (Another Name)
Isopropyl AlcoholIt is considered a suitable substitute for ethanol in most cases but must not be ingested.
Isopropyl Alcoholprepared commercially by the sulfuric-acid–catalyzed hydration of propylene.
Antiseptic for the skin and disinfectant for surgical instruments.Primary uses of Isopropyl Alcohol
50% to 95%.(2-propanol)Rapidly bactericidal in concentration range of ?
60% ethanol in water solution(2-propanol)40% concentration is considered equal in antiseptic efficacy to a ?
Isopropyl AlcoholUsed in pharmaceuticals and toiletries as solvent and preservative.

Section 5

Question Answer
C2H4OEthylene Oxide (Another Name)
involves the alkylation of functional groups in nucleic acids and proteins by nucleophilic opening of the oxide ring. mechanism of the germicidal action of ethylene oxide
Ethylene Oxideused to sterilize temperature- sensitive medical equipment and certain pharmaceuticals that cannot be heat sterilized in an autoclave.
Ethylene Oxideforms explosive mixtures in air at concentrations ranging from 3% to 80% by volume.
CarboxideCommercial sterilant containing 10% ethylene oxide and 90% carbon dioxide by volume.

Section 6

Question Answer
FormalinFormaldehyde (Another Name)
FormalinAqueous solution that officially contains not less than 37% w/v of formaldehyde (HCHO), with methanol added to retard polymerization.
involve direct, nonspecific alkylation of nucleophilic functional groups (amino, hydroxyl, and sulfhydryl) in proteins and nucleic acids to form carbinol derivatives. Germicidal action of formaldehyde
Contact Dermatitis/CarcinogenFormalin causes and its pure form is?

Section 7

Question Answer
(Cidex, a 5-carbon dialdehyde)Glutaraldehyde Disinfectant Solution (Another Name)
Glutaraldehydeused as a dilute solution for sterilization of equipment and instruments that cannot be autoclaved.
2% buffered at pH 7.5-8.0Stabilized in alkaline solution?

Section 8

Question Answer
Phenol, USP Remains the standard to which the activity of most germicidal substances is compared.
Phenolic Coefficientthe ratio of a dilution of a given test disinfectant to the dilution of phenol that is required to kill (to the same extent) a strain of Salmonella typhi under carefully controlled time and temperature conditions.
Phenolic Coefficientdo not kill microorganisms uniformly, so variations in the phenol coefficient will occur.
Phenolic Coefficientused to conduct the test are difficult to reproduce exactly, so high variability between different measurements and laboratories is expected.
Substitution with alkyl, aryl, and halogen (especially in the para position) groups increases bactericidal activity.Phenol -SAR

Section 9

Question Answer
Carbolic Acid Phenol (Another Name)
Phenolexhibits germicidal activity (general protoplas- mic poison), is caustic to skin, exerts local anesthetic ef- fects, and must be diluted to avoid tissue destruction and dermatitis.
PhenolUsed as surgical antiseptic/antipruritic in phenolated calamine lotion (0.1%–1% concentrations)
Liquified Phenolsimply phenol containing 10% water.
Liquified Phenolliquid form is convenient for adding phenol to various pharmaceutical preparations because it can be measured and transferred easily.
p-Chlorophenolused in combination with camphor in liquid petrolatum as an external antiseptic and anti-irritant.
about 4p-Chlorophenol (Phenol coefficient)
PC-MX; Metasepp-Chloro-m-xylenol (Another Name)
p-Chloro-m-xylenola nonirritating antiseptic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial and anti- fungal properties.
p-Chloro-m-xylenol2% concentration as a shampoo
p-Chloro-m-xylenolIt has also been used topically for the treatment of Tinea (ringworm) infections such as athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis) and jock itch (Tinea cruris).
3,4,6-trichlorophenolHexachlorophene (Another Name)
A biphenol generally possesses greater potency than a monophenol.Germicidal Action of (p-Chloro-m-xylenol)
p-Chloro-m-xylenolIncreased degree of chlorination increases its antiseptic potency further.
Cresola mixture of three isomeric methylphenols
2.5Cresol(Phenol coefficeint)
unpleasant odorDrawback of cresol
Amylmetacresol (component of Strepsils)Cresol derivative
4-Chloro-3-methylphenolChlorocresol (Another Name)
Chlorocresolis only slightly soluble in water. At the low concentration that can be achieved in aqueous media, the compound is only useful as a preservative.
Isopropyl m-cresolThymol (Another Name)
Isopropyl m-cresolextracted from oil of Thymus vulgaris (thyme, of the mint family) by partitioning into alkaline aqueous medium followed by acidification.
Thymol It has a mild fungicidal properties and is used in alcohol solutions and in dusting powders for the treatment of tinea (ringworm) infections.
4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol Eugenol (Another Name)
4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol obtained primarily from clove oil.
EugenolUsed as both local anesthetic and antiseptic activity and can be directly applied on a piece of cotton to relieve toothaches and mouthwashes
14.4Eugenol (phenol coefficient)
m-Dihydroxybenzene (resorcin), or resorcinolResorcinol (Another Name)
0.4 (weak antiseptic)Resorcinol (phenol coefficient )
Resorcinolused in 1% to 3% solutions and in ointments and pastes in concentrations of 10% to 20% for the treatment of skin conditions such as ringworm, eczema, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis
ResorcinolKeratolytic Agent
4-Hexylresorcinol, or hexylresorcinolHexylresorcinol (Another Name)
Hexylresorcinol Used as Effective antiseptic (both bactericidal and fungicidal)
98Hexylresorcinol (phenol coefficeint)
As is typical for alkylated phenols, it possesses surfactant properties.As is typical for alkylated phenols, it possesses surfactant properties.
Hexylresorcinol Has local anesthetic activity (formulated into throat lozenges)

Section 10

Question Answer
Carbamide peroxide (Gly-Oxide)Carbamide Peroxide Topical Solution (Another Name)
Carbamide peroxide (Gly-Oxide)a stable complex of urea and hydrogen peroxide.
12.6%w/v carbamide peroxide in anhydrous glycerin.Commercial Preparation of Carbamide peroxide (Gly-Oxide)
• Used as both an antiseptic and disinfectant. • Effective in the treatment of oral ulcerations or in dental care.Uses of Carbamide Peroxide Topical Solution
Hydrous benzoyl peroxide (Oxy-5, Oxy-10, Vanoxide)Hydrous Benzoyl Peroxide (Another Name)
ExplosivePure powder form of Hydrous benzoyl peroxide
Hydrous Benzoyl Peroxide5% & 10% concentrations, both used as keratolytic and keratogenic. • It is used in the treatment of acne.

Section 11

Question Answer
acts to inactivate proteins by iodination of aromatic residues (phenylalanyl and tyrosyl) and oxidation (sulfhydryl groups).Germicidal Action of Halogen/Iodophors
Bactericidal and fungicidalUses of iodophors
Povidone–iodineThe complex is extremely water-soluble. • Soluble and releases iodine very slowly
Povidone–iodineUsed in presurgical disinfection of the incision site; to treat infected wounds and damage to the skin • Effective for local bacterial and fungal infections.
• Chlorination of amide nitrogen atoms and the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins. • Optimal antiseptic effect at around pH 7mechanisms of germicidal action of chlorine-containing compounds
p-Dichlorosulfamoylbenzoic acidHalazone (Another Name)
Halazone• photosensitive compound • halazone is used to disinfect drinking water.

Section 12

Question Answer
N,N-Dichlorodicarbonamidine (Azochloramid)Chloroazodin (Another Name)
Chloroazodin • Unstable to light or heat (explodes above 155°C) • Soluble enough in water to be used in very dilute solution to disinfect wounds, as packing for dental caries, and for lavage and irrigation.
Chloroazodinantiseptic action is long lasting because of its extremely slow reaction with water.
Oxychlorosene (Clorpactin) Oxychlorosene Sodium (Another Name)
Oxychlorosene Sodiuma complex of the sodium salt of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid and hypochlorous acid.
Oxychlorosene SodiumHas rapid-cidal action against most microorganisms, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, and spores.

Section 13

Question Answer
Cationic surfactantsare quaternary ammonium compounds
form micelles by concentrating at the inter- face of immiscible solvents. The compounds, with a polar head group and nonpolar hydro- carbon chain,
Cationic head group/ Long Hydrocarbon TailThe surface activity of these compounds, exemplified by lauryl triethylammonium sulfate, results from two structural moieties
has a high affinity for watera cationic head group
which has an affinity for lipids and non-polar solvents.a long hydrocarbon tail

Section 14

Question Answer
Cationic dyes are active against Gram- positive bacteria and many fungi; Gram- negative bacteria are generally resistant.
The difference in susceptibilityprobably related to the cellular characteristics that underlie the Gram stain.
Organic Mercury ComoundsUsed as antiseptics, preservatives, or diuretics.
Two General Classes of Organic Mercury Compoundscompounds with at least one carbon–mercury bond/compounds with mercury bonded to heteroatoms
does not ionized readilycompounds with at least one carbon–mercury bond
Ionize partially or completely compounds with mercury bonded to heteroatoms
Reacts with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in enzymes and other proteins to form covalent compounds of the type R-S-Hg-R.Mechanism of Germicidal Action ( Organic Mercury Compounds)

Section 15

Question Answer
Preservatives Used to prevent microbial contamination and maintain sterility
Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives (Another Name)
p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid DerivativesHave antifungal properties
p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid DerivativesActivity generally increases with molecular weight, but the methyl ester is most effective against molds, whereas the propyl ester is most effective against yeasts.
p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid DerivativesThe more lipid-soluble propyl ester is the preferred preservative for drugs in oil or lipophilic base.