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Anthropology terms

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lekhoa's version from 2016-07-23 05:04

Section

TermDefinition
cultural anthropologyThe study of the learned patterns of behavior and knowledge characteristic of a society and of how they vary.
cultureLearned, nonrandom, systematic behavior and knowledge that can be transmitted from generation to generation.
archaeologyThe scientific study of the past and current cultures through the analysis of artifacts and the context in which they are found.
linguistic anthropologyThe study of language in cross-cultural perspective; the origin and evolution of language.
applied anthropology A branch of anthropology devoted to applying anthropological theory to practical problems.
science A way of learning about the world by applying the principles of scientific thinking, which includes making empirical observations, proposing hypotheses to explain those observations, and testing those hypotheses in valid and reliable ways; also refers to the organized body of knowledge that results from scientific study.
empirical Received through the senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, taste), either directly or through extensions of the senses (such as a microscope).
hypothesis An informed supposition about the relationship of one variable to another.
variable Any property that may be displayed in different values.
experiment A test of the predictive value of a hypothesis. A controlled experiment compares two situations in which only one variable differs.
theory A step in the scientific method in which a statement is generated on the basis of highly confirmed hypotheses and used to generalize about conditions not yet tested.
anthropocentricity The belief that humans are the most important elements in the universe.
spontaneous generationAn old and incorrect idea that complex life-forms could be spontaneously created from nonliving material.
immutable Unchanging.
principle of use and disuseConcept popularized by Lamarck that proposes that parts of the body that are used are often strengthened and improved, whereas parts of the body that are not used become weak and ultimately may disappear.
principle of acquired characteristicsConcept, popularized by Lamarck that traits gained during a lifetime can then be passed on to the next generation by genetic means; considered invalid today.
catastrophism Idea that the earth has experienced a series of catastrophic destructions and creations and that fossil forms found in each layer of the earth are bounded by a creation and destruction event.
great chain of being(scala naturae) The idea that organisms are arranged in a hierarchy from lesser to greater state of perfection.
uniformitarianism Principle that states that physical forces working today to alter the earth were also in force and working in the same way in former times.
strata Layers of sedimentary rocks.
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Question Answer
natural selection Differential fertility and mortality of variants within a population.
creation-scienceThe idea that scientific evidence can be and has been gathered for creation as depicted in the Bible. Mainstream scientists, many religious leaders, and the Supreme Court discount any scientific value of “creationscience” statements.
intelligent design (ID) theoryAn essentially religious explanation of the world that assumes the existence of a supernatural force that is responsible for the great complexity of life on earth today.
irreducible complexityConcept that there exists processes and structures that are too complex to have arisen through evolutionary mechanisms but must have arisen by work of a “designer.”
synthetic theory of evolution The theory of evolution that fuses Darwin’s concept of natural selection with information from the fields of genetics, mathematics, embryology, paleontology, animal behavior, and other disciplines.
blending theory An early and incorrect idea that the inherited characteristics of offspring are intermediate between maternal and paternal genetic characteristics.
pangenesis An early and inaccurate idea that acquired characteristics of the parents are transmitted to their offspring.
true-breeding Showing the same traits without exception over many generations.
hybrids Individuals that are the result of a cross or mating between two different kinds of parents.
dominantThe trait that is seen in the hybrid is said to be dominant.
recessiveThe trait that is not seen in the hybrid is said to be recessive
modelA representation of a phenomenon on which tests can be conducted and from which predictions can be made.
segregationIn the formation of sex cells, the process in which paired hereditary factors separate, forming sex cells that contain either one or the other factor.
back crossThe process of crossing a hybrid with its homozygous recessive parent.
independent assortmentA Mendelian principle that states that differing traits are inherited independently of each other
phenotypeThe observable and measurable characteristics of an organism.
traitOne aspect of the phenotype.
genotypeThe genetic constitution of an individual.
environmentEverything external to the organism
monozygotictwins
Identical twinsderived from a single zygote.
zygoteA fertilized ovum.
dizygotic twinsFraternal twins; twins derived from separate zygotes.
genesSections of the genetic material that have specific functions.
allelesAlternative forms of a gene
homozygousHaving two like alleles of a particular gene: homozygous dominant when the allele is dominant and homozygous recessive when the allele is recessive.
homozygous dominantHaving two dominant alleles of the same gene
homozygous recessiveHaving two recessive alleles of the same gene
heterozygousHaving two different alleles of a particular gene.
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)An artificially created substance whose main use is in detecting the ability to taste it; ability to taste PTC is inherited as a dominan
cytogeneticsThe study of the heredity mechanisms within the cell
cellThe smallest unit able to perform all those activities collectively called life. All living organisms are either one cell or composed of several cells
plasma membraneA structure that binds the cell but allows for the entry and exit of certain substances.
nucleusA structure found in the cell that contains the chromosomes.
nuclear membraneA structure that binds the nucleus within the cell.
cytoplasmMaterial within the cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane
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