Anthropology Ch.3

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 16:36


Question Answer
Explanation• an answer to a why question. In science, there are two kinds of explanations that researchers try to achieve: associations and theories.
Variablea thing or quantity that varies
Laws (scientific)associations or relationships that almost all scientists accept
Statistical associationa relationship or correlation between two or more variables that is unlikely to be due to chance
Theoriesexplanations of associations or laws
Theoretical constructsomething that cannot be observed or verified directly
Falsificationshowing that a theory seems to be wrong by finding that implications or predictions derivable from it are not consistent with objectively collected data
Hypothesispredictions, which may be derived from theories, about how variables are related
Theoretical orientationa general attitude about how phenomena are to be explained
Cultural ecologythe analysis of the relationship between a culture and its enviroment
Operational definitiona description of the procedure that is followed in measuring a variable
Measureto describe how something compares with other things on some scale of variation
Sampling universethe list of cases to be sampled from
Probability valuethe likelihood that an observed result could have occurred by chance
Statistical significancerefers to a result that would occur very rarely by chance. The result (and stronger ones) would occur fewer than 5 times out of 100 by chance
Participation-observationliving among the people being studied- observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group. Writing or otherwise recording notes on observations, questions asked and answered, and things to check out later are parts of participant-observation
Fieldworkfirsthand experience with the people being studied and the usual means by which anthropological information is obtained. Regardless of other methods that anthropologists may use (censuses, surveys), fieldwork usually involves participant-observation for an extended period of time, often a year or more.