Anthropology Ch.2

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 16:31


Question Answer
Culture• the set of learned behaviors and ideas (including beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals) that are characteristic of a particular society or other social group
Society• a group of people who occupy a particular territory and speak a common language not generally understood by neighboring people. by definition, societies do not necessarily correspond to countries
Subculturethe shared customs of a subgroup within a society
Normsstandards or rules about what is acceptable behavior
Ethnocentricrefers to judgment of other cultures solely in terms of ones own culture
Ethnocentrismthe attitude that other societies customs and ideas can be judged in the context of ones own culture
Cultural relativismthe attitude thata society’s customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that society’s problems and oppurtunities
Maladaptive customscultural traits that diminish the chances of survival and reproductive success in a particular enviroment
Diffusionthe process by which cultural elements are borrowed rom another society and incorporated into the culture of the recipient group
Acculturationthe process of extensive borrowing of aspects of culture in the context of superordinate- subordinate relations between societies; usually occurs as the result of external pressure
Revolutiona usually violent replacement of a society’s ruler
Globalizationthe ongoing spread of goods, people, information, and capital around the world
Ethnogensiscreation of a new culture