Anthropology Ch.1

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 16:24


Question Answer
anthropology- a discipline that studies humans, focusing on the study of differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations. Anthropology is concerned with typical biological and cultural characteristics of human populations in all periods and in all parts of the world
Holisticrefers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multi faced system
Biological (physical) anthropology the study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations
Cultural anthropologythe study of cultural variation and universals in the past and present
Applied (practicing) anthropologythe branch of anthropology that concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practicing goals
Human paleontology the study of emergence of humans and their later physical evolution. Also called paleoanthropology
Human variationthe study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically
Fossils the hardened remains or impressions fo plants and animals that lived in the past
Primatea member of the mammalian order Primates, divided into the two suborders of prosimians and anthropoids
Primatologypeople who study primates
Homo sapiensall living people belong to the biological species, homo sapiens, which means that all human populations on earth can successfully interbreed. The first Homo sapiens may have emerged about 200,000 years ago.
Archaeology the branch of anthropology that seeks to reconstruct the daily life and customs of people who lived in the past and to trace and explain cultural changes. Often lacking written records for study, archeologists must try to reconstruct history from the material remains of human cultures
Prehistory the time before written records
Historical archaeologya specialty within archaeology that studies that material remains of recent peoples who left written records
Anthropological linguistics the anthropological study of languages
Historical linguisticsthe study of how languages change over time
Descriptive (structural) linguistics the study of how languages are constructed
Sociolinguisticsthe study of cultural and subcultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts
Ethnologythe study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar
Ethnographera person who spends some time living with, interviewing, and observing a group of people to describe their customs
Ethnographya description of a society’s customary behaviors and ideas
Ethnohistorianan ethnologist who uses historical documents to study how a particular culture has changed over time
Cross cultural researcheran ethnologist who uses ethnographic data about many societies to test possible explanations of cultural variation to discover general patterns about cultural traits- what is universal, what is variable, why raits vary, and what the consequences of the variable might be