Anthro Final

cglisan's version from 2015-12-12 20:22

Section 1

Question Answer
AnthropologyStudy of humankind -- of ancient and modern people and their ways of living
HolismA single aspect of culture is integrated with other aspects, so that no single dimension of culture can be understood in isolation
FieldworkFirsthand experience with the people being studied. Integration through the community through long-term residence
FIeldnotesData collected by anthropologists
InterviewsRely entirely on research subjects as sources of knowledge
Participant observation Places the ethnographer at the scene where a combination of direct observation and interviewing provides the evidence from which ethnographic accounts are constructed
Culture ShockFeeling of anxiety and disorientation that develops in an unfamiliar situation when there is confusion about how to behave or what to expect
Informants People through whom the anthropologist learns about the culture through observation and by asking questions
EthnographyFirsthand description of a living culture based on personal observation
EthnologyStudy of a particular topic or problem in more than one culture, using a comparative perspective
Humanistic ApproachDescribes and interprets culture on its own terms; believes comparisons distort the unique qualities of a given culture
Scientific ApproachAims to explain cultural differences and similarities; it believes that regularities exist across cultures and can be discovered through empirical data collection and systematic comparison

Section 2

Question Answer
CultureLearned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behavior found in human societies. Socially acquired lifestyle that includes patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting.
SubcultureThose who share certain cultural features that are significantly different from those of the rest of society
EnculturationPartially conscious and partially unconscious learning experience whereby the older generation invites, induces, and compels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and behaving
EthnocentrismBelief that one's own patterns of behavior are always natural, good, beautiful, or important and that strangers, to the extent that they live differently, live by savage, inhuman, disgusting, or irrational standards.
Cultural RelativismStipulates that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another. Yet it is evident that not all human customs or institutions contribute to the society's overall health and well-being, nor should they be regarded as morally or ethically worth of respect.
Falsification Entails the rejection of a theory because the prediction is not supported by the data
Diffusion Occurs when culture contact leads to borrowing and passing on of culture traits
EmicsDescribe culture from the participants' viewpoint; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the participants
EticsDescribe culture from the observer's perspective; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the viewer
Universal Pattern Set of patterns that is comprehensive enough to afford logical and classificatory organization for a range of traits and institutions that can be observed in all cultural systems
InfrastructureTechnologies and activities that bear directly on the provision of food and shelter, protection against illness, and the satisfaction of sexual and other basic human needs and drives
StructureGroups and organizations present in every society that allocate, regulate, and exchange goods, labor, and information
SuperstructureBehavior and thought devoted to symbolic, ideational, artistic, playful, religious, and intellectual endeavors
Functionalism mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of
Structural Functionalismframework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Postmodernismchallenge discipline and reject all casual viewpoints

Section 3

Question Answer
Biological EvolutionChange in allele frequency in population over time
Descent with modificationTraits providing reproductive advantage
Natural SelectionChanges in frequencies of certain genetic traits in populations due to the differential reproductive success between individuals
Reproductive SuccessNumber of offspring an individual rears to reproductive age
AdaptionBiological and cultural traits that improve opportunities for individuals of a population to survive and reproduce
AltruismAct of maintaining the well-being of an individual's close relatives and their offspring to ensure their survival so that their genes will be continued in the next generation
Cultural takeoffOccurred once the capacity for language and language-assisted thought developed. A vast number of cultural differences and similarities appeared independently of changes in genotype
Cumulative cultural evolutionBehavior or artifacts that are transmitted and modified over many generations and gain complexity as they evolve

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