imissyou419's version from 2017-01-31 03:59

Section 1

Question Answer
What receptor is on skeletal muscle?nicotinic (nM) receptor
What receptor is on all ANS ganglion?nicotonic (nN) receptor
What receptor is on ANS ganglion, parasympathetic organs?muscarinic (5 subtypes) receptor
What receptors are for NE and E?adrenergic alpha (4 subtypes), adrenergic beta (3 subtypes) receptors
What is the agonist for nicotinic skeletal muscle (Nm) receptor?Ach Nicotine (tobacco)
What are 2 antagonists for nicotinic skeletal muscle (Nm) receptor? d-Tubocurarine (south american indian poison), alpha-bungarotoxin (snake poison)
what is the action of the nicotinic skeletal muscle (Nm) receptor?ligand gated
What is the mechanism for nicotinic skeletal muscle (Nm) receptor?opens Na+/K+ channels, fast EPSP
What is the agonist for nicotinic ANS ganglion (Nn) receptor?Ach Nicotine (tobacco)
What is the antagonist for nicotinic ANS ganglion (Nn) receptor?hexamethonium
What is the action for nicotinic ANS ganglion (Nn) receptor?ligand gated
What is the mechanism for nicotinic ANS ganglion (Nn) receptor? opens Na+/K+ channels, fast EPSP
What is the agonist for Muscarinic receptpor?Ach Muscarine (toadstool poison)
What is the antagonist for Muscarinic receptor?atropine
What is the action of Muscarinic receptor?G-protein coupled
What is the mechanism for Muscarinic receptor?modify K+, Ca2+ channel conductances, slow effects (slow excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)
What is the agonist for adrenergic alpha receptor?Norepinephrine has greater effect than epinephrine
What is the antagonist for adrenergic alpha receptor?phentolamine
What is the action of adrenergic alpha receptor?G-protein coupled
What is the mechanism of adrenergic alpha receptor?slow EPSP, slow IPSP
What is the agonist for adrenergic beta?epinephrine has greater effect than norepinephrine
What is the antagonist for adrenergic beta?propanolol
What is the action for adrenergic beta?G-protein coupled
What is the mechanism for adrenergic beta?slow EPSP, slow IPSP
Compare nicotinic receptor at skeletal muscle NMJ and nicotinic receptor at ANS KNOW THISNot same structure (they are blocked by different antagonists), both ionotropic with fast EPSP (ligand gated)
What happens if you shoot D-tubocurarine?blockage of NMJ (block nicotinic skeletal muscle receptor so no opening of Na+/K+ channels and no fast EPSP, no AP in muscle)
Muscarinic receptor KNOW THISG-protein, slow EPSPs also occur at ANS ganglia. Therefore ANS ganglia Ach act on 2 different postsynaptic receptor types (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors) but at ANS ganglia, have only EPSP and at periphery, have EPSP and IPSP
Compare muscarinic receptor and adrenergic alpha, beta receptors KNOW THISboth metabotropic (involve G-protein with signalling cascade, i.e. ANS ganglia Ach produces a slow EPSP by closing a K+ channel, which results in less outward K+, and depolarization)
What are the # of different subtypes for Muscarinic, adrenergic alpha, adrenergic beta? KNOW THIS5 different muscarinic subtypes, 4 different adrenergic alpha subtypes, 3 different adrenergic beta subtypes
What are the receptors at ANS ganglia? and what is the speed of their EPSPsNicotinic receptors - Fast EPSPs (10-50 ms), initiated AP.
Muscarinic receptor - Slow EPSP (100's ms), increases excitability.
Peptidergic - very slow (mins), increases excitability
What do peptides/metabotropic do?Like LTP. act on second messenger systems to produce midterm and longterm effects i.e. open/close ion channels, increase sensitivity, insert more into membrane, alter gene expression
Co-transmission at ANS organsEnteric NS, most postganglionic axons have varicosities (bulbous enlargements) along their length from which transmitters are released and diffuse to their receptors on smooth muscle. A variety of peptides are released with NE, Ach, ATP to produce diverse effects
Effect of adrenergic varcosities on enteric NSdecrease activity (smooth muscle, blood flow, glands)
Effect of cholinergic varicosities on enteric NSincrease activity (smooth muscle, blood flow, glands)
Effect of releasing ATP at enteric NSact on Purinergic receptors - fast synaptic effects
Effect of releasing NE at enteric NSact on adrenergic receptor - slow synaptic effects (hyperpolarization of smooth muscle)
Effect of releasing peptides at enteric NSact as peptide secondary messengers - very slow synaptic effects (open/close ion channels, alter gene expression)
What are the peptides that act on enteric NS?enkephalin, somatostatin, substance P, neuropeptide Y
What act at enteric NS?2 Major Transmitters (plus ATP),
Adrenergic Alpha 4 subtypes,
Adrenergic Beta 3 subtypes,
Cholinergic Nicotinic 1 subtype,
Cholinergic Muscarinic 5 subtypes,
Dozens of peptides

Section 2

Question Answer
Heart has B1 adrenergic receptor, increases HR and strength of contraction (cardioaccel)
Bronchioles haveB2 adrenergic receptor, relaxes smooth muscle in airways (bronchodilation)
If you need a drug that dilate airways without increasing HR, what do you choose?B2 agonist (if you give epinephrine, will bind to both equally)
Adrenal medullasimiliar effects as sympathetic stimulation but 80% E, lasts longer (2 min), has greater effect on heart because heart has B1 receptors which is more strongly affected by E (stronger than NE from sympathetic stimulation)
During anaphylatic shock (serious allergic reaction), what happens? What do you give them?decreased bp (faint), bronchial constriction; give B1 cardioaccel to increase HR, B2 bronchodilation (need a drug that act on beta receptors and since E > NE, give epinephrine)
Which organ only have sympathetic innervation?arteries
Explain "tone" Normally the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are continually active, but no parasympathetic here...Tone e.g. 1 AP/2 sec. Allows SNS to both increase and decrease activity of a stimulated organ. Some tone comes from basal secretion of E and NE from adrenal medulla, tone can be regulated up and down by release of E and NE and direct sympathetic supply (1 AP/10s, 20 AP/s)

Section 3

Question Answer
Parasympatheticvisceral/vegetative functions "rest and digest", conserve/restore energy, empties bladder & rectum, stimulates male/female sex organs
Sympatheticcontrols some variables (blood pressure, temp) continuously, stimulate male/female sex organs, can discharge as a unit (mass response) in emergency situations i.e. "fight or flight"
Pupils KNOW THESESNS: dilate, PNS: constrict
HR, BP KNOW THESESNS: increase, PNS: decrease
Blood vessels KNOW THESESNS: constriction in most vessels, dilation in skeletal muscle (by sending less AP to arterioles), PNS: NONE
Bronchial musclesSNS: relaxation (dilation), PNS: contract
Gut motilitySNS: decrease, PNS: increase
SphincterSNS; contract, PNS: relax
Gut gland secretionSNS: inhibit, PNS: stimulate
Bladder muscleSNS: relax "you pee yourself when you're scared", PNS: contract
Hair musclesSNS: contract, "goosebumps when scared" PNS: NONE
Sweat glandsSNS: increase, "sweat to keep you cool when you fight" PNS: NONE
Blood gluocse/fatty acidsSNS: increase, "use energy to fight or flight" PNS: NONE
metabolic rate of all cellsSNS: increase (direct and by epinephrine), PNS: NONE
Shy-Drager syndromeRare progressive degenerative disorder of the NS
Involves multiple system atrophy including ANS
No cure
Treatment deals with signs and symptoms

Major ANS characterstics are:
1. postural (orthostatic) hypotension (can faint when sitting up b/c blood pool at feet/severe bp drop & no ANS to constrict blood vessels) b/c HR, BP
2. reduced sweating (heat control) b/c blood vessels
3. loss of bladder, bowel control b/c sweat glands & bladder muscle & gut motility
4. impotence b/c of sexual function