# Another whitford physio test

version from 2015-04-12 04:14

## acid-base

what is a PRIMARY acid base disturbance?acid/base disturbance without any physiological correction (homeostasis)
acid base disturbances happen b/c of disturbances in the ____ concentration or the ____ concentrationPCO2, HCO3- (bicarb)
Acidosis is blood pH in what range?below 7.4
Alkalosis is blood pH in what range?above normal (7.4 pH)
Respiratory acid base disturbances are caused by changes in the ____ concentrationCO2
______ ______ is caused by an increased respiratory raterespiratory alkalosis
______ ______ is caused by a decreased respiratory raterespiratory acidosis
As CO2 levels rise, pH _____increases (more basic/alkaline)
As CO2 levels decline, pH _____decreases (more acidic)
How does an increase in CO2 affect the bicarb buffer system?pushes to right --> increase H+
How does a decrease in CO2 affect the bicarb buffer system?pushes to left --> decrease H+ (also less bicarb)
What is the most common type of acid-base disturbance?Metabolic (caused by change in bi-carb)
At normal physiological conditions, the ratio of bicarb/carbonic acid is20 to 1
write out the henderson hasselbach equationpH = pKa + Log (base/acid)
what is the conjugate base of the bicarb buffer system?HCO3-
what is the conjugate acid of the bicarb buffer system?H2CO3
what is the HH equation for the bicarb buffer system?pH = 6.1 + log (HCO3-/H2CO3) (or HCO3-/PCO2 * 0.03)
what organs tightly regulate the bicarb buffer system to maintain a pH of 7.4?Kidneys & Lungs
In respiratory acidosis, is the PCO2 above or below 40mmHg?less, this causes HCO3- to below as well
In metabolic acidoses, is the PCO2 above or below 40mmHg?above, this is caused by excess bicarb
what is the normal bicarb concentration?24 mEq / L
what is the normal PCO2?40 mm Hg
What is normal blood pH ?7.4

## diagnose the type of acidosis/alkalosis

pH <7.4, HCO3- < 24 mEq/L, PCO2 < 40mm Hgrespiratory acidosis
pH <7.4, HCO3- > 24 mEq/L, PCO2 > 40mm Hgmetabolic acidosis
pH >7.4, HCO3- < 24 mEq/L, PCO2 < 40mm Hgmetabolic alkalosis
pH >7.4, HCO3- > 24 mEq/L, PCO2 > 40mm Hgrespiratory alkalosis

## condition causes acidosis or alkalosis?

diarrheaMETABOLIC acidosis (lose bicarb in stool)
deep vomitingMETABOLIC acidosis (lose bicarb from intestine)
uremiaMETABOLIC acidosis
diabetes mellitusacidosis (from beta oxidation and ketoacidosis)
COPDRESPIRATORY acidosis
emphysemaRESPIRATORY acidosis
Ca inhibitorsacidosis, renal
antacidsalkalosis
gastic vomitingmetabolic alkalosis (losing great deal of H+)
aldosteronealkalosis (increasing K+ secretion and Na+ reabsorption, affects H+ levels)
altitudealkalosis (respiratory b/c less O2 in air)
fear, stress, or laboralkalosis (hyperventilation)

## Diseases that affect renal function

define DISEASEpathological condition of an organ or system
define SYNDROMEcollections of signs and symptoms which are associated with one or several diseases (ex hypertension, edema, nephrotic syndrome)
This syndrome is loss of plasma protein in urine & results in edema and hypotensionNEPHROTIC SYNDROME (loss of fluid)
This glomerular disease is caused by streptococci, occurs mostly in children, and results in a progressive decline in GFR?Glomerulo-nephritis
How do you treat GLOMERULONEPHRITIS?antibodies (caused by streptococcal infection)
What are causes and results of Diabetes insipid us?defects in ADH system, High output renal failure
NEPHROGENIC diabetes insipidus is a problem with the _____ and can be diagnosed by high levels of ____ in the ____ADH receptors in the kidney; ADH in the blood
Renal Tubular Acidosis is caused by low activity of what enzyme in the kidney?Carbonic Anhydrase (acidosis of body, & alkaline urine)
What are the acidic by-products of beta-oxidation of fatty acids?B-Hydroxy-butarate, Acetoacetic acid, & Acetone
What is pyelonephritis?
What is diabetes mellitus?
What is diabetes insipidus?
What is Cushing's disease?
What is Goldblatt Hypertension?
How is Goldblatt Hypertension treated?
What is dialysis used for?
What is the creatine and urea concentration in dialyzing solution?0 (ZERO)