Another Science Test

lunifer's version from 2016-12-21 13:07


Question Answer
What is the pH scale?A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
What is the range of the pH scale?0 - 14
What is the difference between each number equivalent to? (Like times what)The difference between each number is equivalent to an increase of ten times the strength.
How much more acidic is a pH of 3.0 to a pH of 4.0?ten times
What is the pH where more adult fish die?3 - 4
What is the pH range for "normal" rain?5 -6
What is the pH for acid rain?1 - 4
List four things that are also in the same pH as acid rain.Battery acid, lemon juice, vinegar, wine
How many times more acidic is a pH level of 3.0 than a pH level of 5.0?100 times more
What might happen if an acid and base were mixed together?They would neutralize each other.
What happens if you add an acid to a pH indicator?It will turn a shade of red
What happens if you add a base to a pH indicator?It will turn blue, green, yellow or clear.
What did we use as a pH indicator in class?Red cabbage juice
Why do Southwestern Ontario Lakes have a low acidity?There is a lot of limestone, which is very soft. Minerals like calcium are basic/alkaline, which neutralizes the acidity (dissolving in the water.)
Why do Northern Ontario Lakes have a higher acidity?There are fewer alkaline substances, so less acidity is neutralized.
If something is not acidic or basic, where is it around on the pH scale?7

Pollution (You don't really have to memorize this, just kind of know)

Question Answer
Where do the pollutants in the air come from?Burning fossil fuels
What can air pollution cause?smog and acid rain
What are three major air pollutants?sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide
What two substances dissolve in water droplets to produce acids?sulphur and nitrogen oxides

Basics of Petroleum

Question Answer
What is petroleum?It is an oily, smoky mixture found deep beneath the Earth's crust.
What happened when desert dwellers in the Middle East thousands of years ago tried to burn petroleum?The flame was too smoky and not very bright.
How was the first petroleum lighting fuel made?Separating tar mixture.
What was the first petroleum product used for lighting called?kerosene

Processing Petroleum

Question Answer
What are the factories that process petroleum called?Oil refineries
What is the process of separating petroleum into its various parts called?Refining
In 1857, what petroleum products did the factories in Ontario create?Buggy wheel grease and kerosene lamp fuel
What is another name for petroleum?Crude oil
Why is petroleum straight from the ground not very useful?It is a mixture of different sized particles.
What is the process of turning special fuels to different petroleum products?fractional distillation
What are the fractions of the distilled petroleum called?petrochemicals

Substances and their Points (numbers except for oxygen doesn't need to be memorized, just know about states of matter and stuff)

Question Answer
OxygenMelt/Freeze is -218, Boil/Condense is -183
Carbon DioxideMelt/Freeze is -78, Boil/Condense is -78
MercuryMelt/Freeze is -39, Boil/Condense is 357
TungstenMelt/Freeze is 3410, Boil/Condense is 5660

Methods of Separation

Question Answer
Fingers/Tongsused to remove large enough pieces from a mixture
Magnetismused to separate any magnetic material
Floatationused to separate material less that is less dense than water
Settlingused to separate material that is more dense than water
Siftingused to separate course material from fine material (when there are too many for fingers/tongs)
Filtrationused to separate dissolved particles from undissolved particles in a mixture
Evaporationused to recover the solute in a solution
Distillationused to separate the solvent from the solute