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Animal Welfare

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Updated 2008-11-12 02:16

Animal Welfare

Question Answer
The five freedoms are freedomfrom hunger and thirst; from discomfort; from pain, injury and disease; to express most normal behaviour; from fear and distress
Reasons for zoosconservation, education, research (+ entertainment)
The biological and ethological needs for captive animal welfare includeThe physical environment, The social environment, Food and feeding behaviour, Reproductive behaviour, Human-animal relationship
What are the four aspects of social structure?group size, sex ration, dominance hierarchy, age structure
Important aspects of feed managementAdequate nutritional diet, time spent feeding, food of correct bulkiness for digestive system
Aspects of reproductive behaviourmating, maternal-offspring requirements, weaning
Effects of captivity on behaviourStereotypies, increased agression, altered time budgets, increased frustration or conflict behaviour, increased fearful behaviour, ontogenic behavioural changes
Environmental enrichment isan animal husbandry principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive animal care by identifying and providing the environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological well-being
four forms of environmental enrichmentphysical, social, feeding and conditioning
Behavioural measures of welfareBehaviour observation, working for a reward, working for escape from unpleasant stimuli, abnormal behaviour, interactions with stockpeople, choices,
the most important behavioural principal for successful captive management of wild animals isUnderstanding the normal social structure of a species
if we can Understandthe normal social structure of a speciesmany other behaviour, such as feeding and reproduction fall into place.
management challenges involving an understanding of social structurejuvenile males reaching sexual maturity, the introduction of new animals to the social group
Two main types of fphysiological responseactivation of the autonomic nervous system and activation of the neuroendocrine system
The autonomic nervous system is further divided intosympathetic adrenal medullary system (involving the flight or fight response) and parasympathetic nervous system
Behaviour can be subdivided intoovert behaviour and adaptive response
Why study behaviour?to manage stock without undue stress, to manage animals for optimal production, to manage pest animals, to design facilities which consider the needs of animals, to manage endangered species
How to develop an understanding of animal behaviour?LEOME learn examine observe measure establish
home rangewhere an animal lives, regardless of whether defended
territorya fixed space, defended against other individuals, usually the same species
Territories vary inspace, time, amount of trespass allowed
how to control the effects of overcrowding?sufficient attractive feeding troughs and nestboxes, partitioning of spaces, subdued lighting
The social organisation of a species includesphysical structure, social structure, group cohesion
Important aspects of social behaviourdominance and social facilitation
a dominance hierarchy isthe system of space sharing in a group arranged on a priority basis which keeps friction at a minimum.
dominance hierarchy prevents aggression asweak individuals learn that they are weak and so avoid fights which they cannot win
social facilitationthe tendancy for animals to join in an activity, eg feeding
an animal will fightTo defend or claim territory, To assert dominance, As a prelude to mating, Out of fear
Three Pillars of Animal ManagementThe Animals – their behaviour and adaptations. The Humans – the people looking after the animals, in other words: us. The System – the facilities and systems of handling and husbandry that we adopt for our animals, both intensive and extensive
stockperson-animal interactions can affectproductivity and of the animal, job satisfaction of the stockperson
Skills and attributes of the stockpersonl knowledge of the species being managed, Practical experience Observational skills to identify changes in the animals’ behaviour, production or health. Ability to work both independently and in a team, and to take responsibility and initiative when required. Good, general, all-round farm skills
fear isan emotional reaction to a stimulus that the animal works to terminate, escape from or avoid
three phases of fear responsebehavioural response, acute stress response, chronic stress response
Behavioural Responseinital response; fight or flight
Acute stress responseFear continues, animal may adopt a coping strategy, metabolic rate increases
Chronic stress responseAnimal is constantly threatened, animal is unable to cope with its fear. effects such as decreased growth, immunity and reproduction.
Measurements of fear can bebehavioural, eg avoidance, physiological, eg heart rate
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