Animal Chemical Control

Updated 2007-05-23 23:00


Question Answer
What are the two parts of internal communication?Nervous system and endocrine system
Endocrine system-communication in the body by a release of hormones into the blood stream
Exocrine gland-goes through a duct and goes outside of the body like sweat glands, pancreas (nothing is inside the body unless its absorbed by a membrane)
Hypothalamus-one major exocrine glands AKA ”Master Gland” because most glands are influenced by it.
Pituitary gland-2 separate glands pushed together 1.posterior-made of nervous tissue originated in ectoderm 2,anterior-pure endocrine (hormone producing) tissue originated in ectoderm
What does the posterior pituitary contain? Two hormones: anti-diuretic hormone and oxycotin
Anti-diuretic hormone- target tissue is kidney and it stimulates H2O absorption
What are hormones for?Maintaining homeostasis
Oxycotin-stimulates smooth muscle cells in uterine for contraction during childbirth and milk letdown (mammary glands in nipples)
What are the three major hormones families? Polypeptides, amino acids and steroids
Peptide-all hypothalamic and pituitary hormones…almost all hormones are peptides which are long chains of amino acids
Amino acid derivatives- epinephrine,norepinephrine,and thyroid hormone-one amino acid that are slightly modified
Steroid-testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, aldosterone and cortical-lipid based derived from cholesterol
What are the 2 types of steroids? Anabolic like testosterone that builds up muscle tissue and catabolic like cortisol which breaks down tissues
What is characteristic shared by all hormones?They are released into the blood stream or other fluids and act on target cells that are distant from the source gland.
What is the general role of hormones?To coordinate the activities of diverse groups of cells in response to changes in the internal or external environment, ( help in growth development and reproduction and homeostasis too)
Fight or flight response-short term reaction which occurs in conjunction with the activation of sympathetic nervous system
Epinephrine-hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress fear and acting to increase heart rate blood pressure cardiac output and carb metabolism
nor epinephrine-neurotransmitter released by adrenergic nerve terminals in the autonomic nerve system that constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure
Glucocorticoids-and of a group of steroid hormones like cortisone that are produced by the adrenal cortex which are involved in carb protein and fat metabolism
What do glucocorticoids like cortisone do in long term response to stress?Ensure the availability of fuel molecules to support important bodily functions but can be negative because they can only make amino acids available for glucose synthesis by promoting the degradation of proteins in muscle, impair wound healing and suppress immune and inflammatory responses that use energy
Adipose tissue-glucocorticoids cause this (fat tissue) and resting muscles to become resistant to the effects of insulin
What do hormones in the adrenal gland do?Coordinate a response to short and long term stresses
Anterior pituitary-hypothalamus makes many hormones that gets secreted into blood vessel to the anterior pituitary which then makes more hormones like the growth hormone, ACTH,TSH prolactin and FSH and LH
Growth hormone-stimulates growth targets many tissues
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)targets adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)- targets thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin
Prolactin-targets mammary glands for growth and milk production in females
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)-targets testes or ovaries for the production of sex hormones and regulates menstrual cycle
What are the sexsteroid hormones?Testosterone(major androgen;promoter of male characteristics), estradiol and progesterone
Do males and females have all 3 sexsteriods? Yes
What do low levels of LH do?Stimulates low levels of estrogen which means the endometrial doesn’t get thick and there is no follicle ruption or ovulation
What are the adrenal glands and pancreas for? Water balance and energy balance
Function of the pancreas- produces insulin when its stimulated by high sugar which lowers blood sugar and maintains homeostasis…also produces glucogon which increases blood sugar concentrations when its too low
Where are adrenal glands located?On top of kidneys
What are the two parts of the adrenal gland and what do they produce? Adrenal cortex which makes steroidal hormones like cortisol and aldosterone and adrenal medulla which makes epinephrine
What is the adrenal cortex made of?Endocrine tissue
What is the adrenal medulla made of? Neurons
What does aldosterone stimulate?Active transport in salt reabsorption in distal tubule (H2O then follows)
What does cortisol do?It is used as an energy mobilizer in response to stress because it gets broken down and sends energy elsewhere (long-term tress)
What are the neg effects of cortical? Inhibits immune function because it takes resources in immune system and redirects energy away from places that don’t need it to places that do
What is a rash?Overactive immune system
What is epinephrine? Energy mobilizer in response to short term stress that causes constriction of blood vessels and rises blood pressure
Which acts more quickly: cortisol or epinephrine?Epinephrine
What are two characteristics of peptides?Hydrophilic and lipophobic
What are two characteristics of steroids?Hydrophobic and lipophilic
Receptors- hormones bind to them in target tissue so responses can only happen with them present
What is the effect of steroid hormone on a target cell? Hormone diffuses into cell, binds to intracellular receptor, binds to hormone response element which stimulates transcription and makes a new protein (it is slow to begin with but long lasting)
Hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis-hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which stimulates anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH which stimulates testes to secrete testosterone, and ovaries to secrete estradiol and progesterone which inhibit production of LH and GnRH by negative feedback so the level of hormone stays constant
Where are testosterone and estradiol secretes from and what do they do?Gonads; they regulate development of secondary sex characteristics
What do peptides and most amino acid derived hormones bind to? Plasma membrane bound receptors
Signal transduction-hormone activates second messenger inside cell leading to a response resulting in an amplified response
Model for epinephrine action-peptides bind to plasma membrane bound receptors,ATP production, Camp formation(second messenger activated) enzyme phosphorilation
Effect of peptide hormone on target cell is faster than that of steroids because why?Already have enzyme and don’t need to make one but it is short lived
Phermones-not hormones but chemicals released into the enironment that affect other animals of the same speicies
When a bee stings what happens?Alarm phermones are released attracting other bees
Queen mandibular phermone-attracts drones and inhibits ovarian development in workers
Evidence of phermones in humans-t-shirt sniff…get on cycle at the same time