Anesthesiology - Thermo

pbhati17's version from 2017-05-06 03:13



Question Answer
**What is the normal temp range for a Dog/Cat? (°F & °C)100.5-102.5°F (or 38.5 to 39.2°C)
**What is the normal temp range for a Goat? (°F & °C)102.0-103.5°F (38.9 to 39.7°C)
**What is the normal temp range for a Sheep? (°F & °C)102.5-103.5°F, (39.2 to 39.7°C)
**What is the normal temp range for a Horse/Camelid? (°F & °C)99.5-101.5°F (37.5 to 38.6°C)
**What is the normal temp range for a Cow? (°F & °C)101.5-102.5°F (38.5 to 39.2°C)
**What is the normal temp range for a Pig? (°F & °C)100.4-102.8°F (38.0 to 39.3°C)
**100.5-102.5°F (38.5 to 39.2°C)Normal temp range for Dogs & Cats
**102.0-103.5°F (38.9 to 39.7°C)Normal temp range for a Goat
**102.5-103.5°F, (39.2 to 39.7°C)Normal temp range a Sheep
**99.5-101.5°F (37.5 to 38.6°C)Normal temp range for Horses/Camelids
**101.5-102.5°F (38.5 to 39.2°C)Normal temp range a Cow
**100.4-102.8°F (38.0 to 39.3°C)Normal temp range for a Pig
**How do you convert C to F?(°C x 1.8) + 32 = °F (The F always goes w/ 32)
**How do you convert F to C?(F-°32) / 1.8 = °C (The F always goes w/ 32)

Not normals

Question Answer
**What temp is considered to be hypothermia?<37°C (<99°F)
What temp is considered mild hypothermia?36.6°C-37°C (98-99°F)
What temp is considered moderate hypothermia?35.5-36.6°C (96-98°F)
What temp is considered severe hypothermia?33.3-35.5°C (92-96°F) (2 & 6 are on severely frigid terms w/ each other)
What temp is considered critical hypothermia?<33°C (<92°F) (if you're even below 2 the humanitarian, then you are TOO LOW)
Where does temp change in the body & where is it constant? Where is temperature regulated in the body & how much change before the body triggers a response to change it?Peripheral temperature might fluctuate, but core temp remains the same. The control center for temp is the hypothalamus which keeps the set core temp. If the core temp varies more than 0.2-0.4° of this range, then the hypothalamus sends signals to warm or cool the body
What are some things the body can do in response to being too cold? Too hot?Too cold: Vasoconstriction, Shivering, Piloerection, Brown fat metabolism (look for warmth)
Too hot: Vasodilation, Sweating, Panting, Look for cold place
Why are animals more prone to problems w/ temperature regulation during anesthesia?The only mechanisms the body can utilize under anesthesia to change the temperature is vasoconstriction/dilation. This means it is not as effective as usual which means you need an anesthetist to help monitor temp.
When you are monitoring temperature-where can you take a CORE temperature? Where can you take a peripheral temp? Which place is used most often & why?CORE: tympanic membrane, pulmonary aa, distal esophagus, nasopharynx. PERIPHERAL: mouth, axilla, rectum. THE MOST USED is rectum, bc the core measurements are kinda invasive & rectal temp most accurately represents the core temp out of all the peripheral measures
Hypothermia might cz postoperative shivering...why wouldn't we want this?Shivering ↑ the metabolic rate which can ↑ the O2 demand a LOT (she said 400% ↑ of O2 demand by shivering)
7 reasons you don't want hypothermia(1) Postoperative shivering
(2) Impaired coagulation
(3) Prolonged drug action
(4) Delayed recovery
(5) ↑ in wound infxns
(6) ↑ mortality
(7) Reduction in MAC (leaves them at risk of too deep of a plane of anesthesia-recovery will take longer)
What are 4 predisposing factors of hypothermia?**Large surface area to mass ratio in smaller animals (g pig > cat dog > horse), also cachexia, neonates, geriatric animals


Question Answer
What are 4 preoperative czs of hypothermia?(1) Prolonged preparation time
(2) Inadequate PTx warming
(3) General anesthesia (gas, high flow, non-rebreathing systems!)
(4) Clipping
Heat loss during anesthesia mainly induced by (4 things)RADIATION (body heat radiates out of body to colder enviro), conduction, CONVECTION (heat is carried away by air around body), evaporation
What are 4 intraoperative czs of hypothermia?(1) Open chest or abdominal procedures
(2) Room temp IV fluids (cold)
(3) Temperature of the operating room
(4) Prolonged duration of the Sx
Endotherm animals have a constant body temperature. What are the 2 thermal compartments, which body parts are in the 2 compartments & what is the big reason for the diff?CORE COMPARTMENT has the brain & the trunk
PERIPHERAL compartment has the other tissue, skin & extremities. The difference is that the core is very well perfused, whereas the periphery is used as the buffer compartment
What’s the main (general) cz of perioperative hypothermia?When there is a rapid redistribution from core to periphery causing an initial rapid heat loss. This is bc of drug-induced vasodilation, as well as mainly RADIATION (body heat just radiates out to colder environment) & CONVECTION (air around body drawing heat away) (also a little bit by conduction & evaporation)
What are some ways you can prevent hypothermia?PREVENTION > TX! Always take routine temp measurements for this. Avoid prolonged preparation times, avoid contact w/ cold surfaces (use towels & blankets), avoid cold air (AC off), cover PTx during waiting periods, use low gas flows where appropriate, warm the IV fluids
What are some methods of acting warming you can use to prevent hypothermia?Circulating warm water heating pads, forces air warming blankets (bear hugger, hot dog), warm water bottles/packs (not too hot!), warm peritoneal/pleural lavage, warm fluids (in line fluid warmers)
When the animal is recovering from anesthesia, temperature should be monitored until it reaches...>38°C (100.4°F) (basically normal temp, its the same temp as when you stop actively warming during anesthesia)
How can you help prevent hypothermia while the PTx recovers?Cover PTx while awake,
If the PTx is shivering during recovery, what should you do?Provide O2 (shivering czs ↑ in metabolism requires more O2)


Question Answer
At what temperature should you start actively warming a PTx during recovery? Give some examples of how to actively warm themactively warm if the temp <36°C (97°F) (seven needs to warm up to you) can use warm air heating device or infrared light
HYPERthermia → at what temperature should you ↓ heating devices? When should you start active cooling?↓ heating devices at >38°C (100.4°F). Active cooling efforts at >41°C (106*F) (Six is dangerous & packing heat)
5 consequences of hyperthermia?(1) ↑ O2 requirement
(2) ↑ cardiac work
(3) ↑ resp. work
(4) ↑ risk of hypercapnia & resp. acidosis
(5) Alteration of coagulation & protein fxns
Which is a bigger deal-hyper or hypothermia?Hypothermia
5 big czs of hyperthermia?(1) Excessive warming
(2) Furry, large dogs
(3) Hot climate
(4) Excitement during recovery
(5) Drug related
What are the drugs which can cz hyperthermia in anyone & why does this happen?Telazol & Ketamine ↑ mm activity & ↑ excitement so they can cz hyperthermia
Which drugs can cz hyperthermia in CATS?Opioids (Hydromorphone, Fentanyl) (cats get HOT & bothered when theyre HIGH on dope)
What are 2 genetic disorders that can cz hyperthermia?HYPP (horses) & malignant hyperthermia
How can hypothermia cz an anesthetic overdose?Continued administration of normothermic amounts of anesthetic to a hypothermic PTx can produce a relative anesthetic overdose (bc it ↓ the MAC)

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