Anesthesia - Euthanasia

drraythe's version from 2016-03-15 21:09


Question Answer
What are the requirements for performing euthanasia?Free of stress & pain, RAPID loss of consciousness, a smooth looking death, safe & practical (cheap/affordability & lack of contamination of the body are also very important to consider)
What are the 3 steps (in order) of the process of the animal dying from euthanasia?(1) Loss of consciousness
(2) Cardiac or respiratory arrest
(3) Loss of cerebral fxn
What are 3 possible mechanisms of euthanasia?(1) Hypoxia
(2) Direct depression of neurons necessary for life
(3) Physical disruption of brain activity
The euthanasia process should minimize or eliminate what things prior to loss of consciousness?Pain
Euthanasia via inhalant anesthetics is only recommended for what kinda animals?Only for small animals: <7kg!
3 disadvantages to using inhalant anesthetics?Hypoxia PRIOR to loss of consciousness (resp arrest)
Seizures are common
Risk of pollution
Inhalant euthanasia which can cz seizures?Inhalant anesthetics
If you do euthanasia w/ inhalant anesthetic soaked in a cotton ball in a closed container, what must you remember to do?Don't forgot to concurrently provide oxygen
What is the mechanism by which inhalant anesthetic czs death?Respiratory arrest (↑ conc of gases displace O2)
What are some advantages to using carbon dioxide as an inhalant euthanasia method?Rapid
Readily available in compressed gas cylinders
Minimal hazard to personnel
No accumulation of toxic tissue residues
What are some disadvantages to using carbon dioxide as a euthanasia method?>80% irritant to nasal mm, stress possible in some species, "diggers & divers" - neonates have extraordinary tolerance to CO2
Which population do you prolly not wanna use CO2 inhalation on?Neonates - Theyre highly tolerant to CO2
How much CO2 are you recc to give, for how long, can you use it w/ animals w/ medical conditions?CAN use w/ animals w/ conditions. Slow filling is less likely to cz pain. Suitable for chicks & other lab animals. Usually do 60-70% for 5 min
If an animal is euthanized by chemical means (not inhalants), what must never happen to the body?Must NEVER enter the human food chain, or really the animal food chain either (vets have been fined for endangered birds dying that ate remains of poorly buried bodies)
Which euthanasia chemicals are FDA approved?Barbiturates
Advantages of Barbiturates as euthanasia agents?FDA approved
Smooth euth w/ minimal discomfort
Disadvantages of Barbiturates as euth agents?IV injxn necessary in most sp
Controlled drugs
Terminal gasp
Possible excitatory phase (distressing to owner)
Which euthanasia agent might cz an excitement phase & terminal gasp which can be distressing to owners?Barbiturates
If you cannot give the Barbiturate due to problems like size or stress of animal, what might you be able to do?IP injxn (she highly recc. always using cath w/ cats)
What should you know about giving a Barbiturate to an animal in a not IV way (Intracardiac, intrasplenic, intrarenal)ONLY DO in anesthetized/unconscious animals & the owner cannot be present
What should the concentration of Pentobarbital be?↑ conc-180-300mg/mL
How do you know youre using the right kinda Pentobarbital to euthanize?COLOR → it should be pink, not white
(I dont think she will ask dose) Dosages of Pentobarbital vary by what factor? How do you know what to use?Species, look at package insert
How does potassium chloride work as a euthanasia agent? (MOA?)It is cardiotoxic, a rapid infusion leads to cardiac arrest
Advantages of potassium chloride?Rapid
Not controlled
Less residue issues
No artifacts (necropsy)
Disadvantages of potassium chloride?Spasms possible
Painful injxn
No loss of consciousness
Not approved by FDA for euthanasia in conscious animals
Which euthanasia agent will not provide loss of consciousness & is not approved by FDA for euthanasia in conscious animals?Potassium chloride (painful injxn too)
KCl should only be used in animals that...Are unconscious
What is T61?A combined solution which inclds an anesthetic, a mm relaxant & a local anesthetic (Embutramid, Mebezonium, Tetracain, respectively)
If you are going to euthanize w/ a combined solution, what is the particular order you should pay attention to?Inject the anesthetic 1st, then the mm relaxant, so they take place at relatively the same time. Mm relaxant kicking in before anesthesia would be very unpleasant
T61 → what is the tetracain & why is it incldd?LA, reduced pain of injxn, neuro & cardiotoxic
T61 → what is the embutramid & why is it incldd?Anesthetic which provides deep level of anesthesia (in <25sec) & also czs cardiac & resp. arrest. (Em wants to be asleep)
T61 → what is mebezonium & what is it incldd?Mm paralysis, czs peripheral resp arrest
What are the advantages of T61?Rapid onset of action, no terminal gasps as seen w/ Barbiturates
Disadvantages of T61?No avail in US, SLOW IV INJXN to avoid dysphoria before unconsciousness, controlled drug, only IV
Which euthanasia agent must be injected slowly to avoid dysphoria?T61 (dont want mm paralysis to kick in before anesthesia, its a combo drug)
List some physical methods of euthanasiaCaptive bolt
Cervical dislocation
↓ apitation
Microwave irritation
What are some things you want to consider when you are performing euthanasia?Presence of owners/children
Size of animal
Special situations (sport events)
If you are going to give a euthanasia drug IV, you should def...Have a catheter
When is the only time you should give an intracardial injxn of euthanasia?ONLY under general anesthesia
What is the only drug for euth you can give IP?Barbiturate
What is the ideal way to euthanize?Under general anesthesia

Specific Animals

Question Answer
What can you use for sedation of a dog about to undergo euthanasia? (Route?)Acepromazine IM
What do you usually give for induction of a dog (route)?Ketamine+Diazepam IV
What do you usually give for euthanasia of a dog?T61 OR Pentobarbital IV
What can you give to a cat IM for sedation?Ketamine & Midazolam
What can you give a cat IV for euthanasia?Pentobarbital or T61
What can you give a cat intracardiac or IP for euthanasia?Pentobarbital
Where do you usually admin IV euthanasia in a rabbit?Ear vein (artery? idk. it's a pic)
How do you usually admin parenteral euthanasia to rodents?IP
What "premedication" do you give a horse for euth?Xylazine, Ketamine, Diazepam (IV)
What do you give a horse for euthanasia? (Route?)IV T61 or Pentobarbital
What can you confirm death (w/ loss of brain fxn?)Corneal reflex is ↓, wide open pupil. (EEG was on list but crossed out. didn't explain in class why)
How can you confirm death (w/ cardiac arrest?)Mechanical: no more heart sounds & pulse. Electronical: ECG: "flat line"