quickster2008's version from 2016-01-18 14:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Which level of anesthesia is considered surgical anesthesia?3
There are four reflexes progressively lost in level [II anesthesia. The third reflex lost in the progression is?thoracic muscular
While performing an Austin bunionectomy under General anesthesia, you over hear the Anesthesiologist mention that he/she is administering Reglan. What is this for? Reduce gastric motility.
Pediatric hypoglycemia is extremely dangerous! Pediatric patients have a very limited amount of glycogen stores, and therefore should always have what fluid running in their IV?D5W(5% dextrose in water)-type of glucose
What are the effects of low serum calcium on the EKG?With a wide QRS complex.(depolarization of the right and left ventricles of the human heart.)
What effect does Ketamine have on a patient?amnesia only(memory loss)
Fentanyl is used as what?Narcotic analgesic.(painkiller)
What drug has largely replaced Sodium Pentothal?Diprivan.(IV drip) -"dip yu pen"
What is the first symptom of malignant hyperthermia?Tachycardia.
Describe the mechanism of breakdown for Esters & Amides.Esters are hydrolyzed by pseudocholinesterase in plasma; amides are metabolized in the liver.
What is the treatment for convulsions?valium"validate that CONvertible"


Question Answer
Describe a Mayo block.Local "ring" block of the lst metatarsophalangeal joint.
Describe MAC anesthesia.IV sedation with a local anesthesia block.
How does local anesthesia provide pain relief?Prevents sodium migration through the nerve membrane, which prevents depolarization and causes inhibition of nerve conduction.
What is the basic treatment for shock?Fluids, ABC's(airway, breathing, circulation), monitor vitals.
The American Society of Anesthesiologists surgical risk classification system classifies "A healthy patient" as what class?class 1
List the complications associated with tourniquet usc?Tissue necrosis, Inflammation, Paralysis, Thrombosis, Circulatory volume overload.
A contraindication to Tourniquet use would be?Previous Popliteal- Dorsalis pedis bypass grafting. Sickle cell disease is potentially a contraindication as well, because the tourniquet causes low oxygen tension which could cause cells to sickle.
List the potential complications of Endotracheal Intubation?Sore throat, Tracheal edema, Croup, laceration, pneumothorax.
When positioning a patient in the supine position during general anesthesia, the most common complication is?Ulnar nerve neuropathy.
When positioning a patient in the prone position during general anesthesia, the most common complication is?Pressure on the orbit(eye) as well as the dorsum of the foot.


Question Answer
During Spinal anesthesia, the space in the lumbar area of the spine into which the anesthetic is placed is the?Subarachnoid space, deep to the dura.
Complications of spinal anesthesia include?Headache, Hypotension, Cauda equina syndrome, and infection.
What is the most common cause of temperature elevation intraoperatively?Malignant hyperthermia.
What medication is used to treat Malignant Hyperthermia?Dantrolene IV.
What type of allergic reaction is Anaphylaxis?A type I antibody mediated hypersensitivity reaction, seen immediately.
What are early signs of Anaphylaxis?Flush, difficulty in breathing, wheezing, stridor, laryngeal edema.
What is the treatment for Anaphylaxis?Epinephrine 0.3-0.S ml sub Q ofa 1:1,000 solution, along with antihistamines.
Describe the mechanism of action of local anesthetics.Local anesthetics prevent conduction of the nerve by decreasing sodium permeability thus increasing the excitation threshold.
What is the toxic dose of Lidocaine 1% plain?300mg (30ml).
What is the toxic dose of Lidocaine 1% with Epinephrine?5OOmg (5Oml).
What is toxic dose of Bupivacaine 0.25% plain?175mg (70ml).
What is the toxic dose of Bupivacaine 0.25% with Epinephrine?225mg (90ml).
List four common Amide based local anesthetics.Lidocaine, Mepivacaine Bupivacaine,and Etidocaine.
List four common ester based local anesthetics.Procaine, Chloroprocaine, hexylcaine,Tetracaine,


Question Answer
When performing tendon transfer type procedures list the type of potential anesthesia that may be used.General, Spinal, and Epidural (because each of these modalities will temporarily eliminate lower extremity muscular activity).
What type of local block is most widely accepted when performing HA V surgery in a healthy patient?MAC with local Mayo block.
What nerve lies within the first intermetatarsal space?deep peroneal
What nerve lies anterior to the medial malleolus?saphenous
Cervical spine radiographs should be obtained on a patient with a history of?Rheumatoid arthritis.
When using a high thigh tourniquet, which types of anesthesia would be unwise?MAC, and local types because the high thigh tourniquet causes too much discomfort and generally requires a general anesthetic.
The recommended pressure for a high thigh tourniquet is? 200 mm Hg over systolic pressure due to the large soft tissue mass in the thigh.
During which stage of anesthesia would it be appropriate to elevate an extremity tourniquet?stage 2
When comparing a spinal block to a epidural block which will allow greater control?epidural block
When a patient has just completed general anesthesia and is violently shaking as if cold, which medication will relieve these symptoms?demerol(Meperidine)


Question Answer
On the morning of surgery a patient with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension should be told to take all of their medication except? They should not take their oral hypoglycemic because they have been NPO and could become severely hypoglycemic and go into insulin shock.
True or false - The toxic dose of local anesthetics is increased with the addition of epinephrine to the anesthetic.True. Epinephrine slows the absorption of the anesthetic and therefore allows more to be used.
Anesthesia is defined as?Loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness.
Factors that affect the concentration of a drug at a site of action, as a function of time is referred to as?Phannacokinetics.
Succinylcholine is primarily used to achieve?Muscle relaxation through depolarization.
Succinylcholine can cause what adverse reactions?Fascicuiations as well as hyperkalemia.
List a potential adverse reaction caused by the drug Toradol?It can cause a peptic ulcer.
Do ester type anesthetics have a higher or lower allergic potential than Amides?higher
The protein-binding characteristic of a drug will affect what?Duration of action.
Is eating within 6 hours prior to a general anesthetic a cause to cancel the surgery?Yes, due to the risk of regurgitation and aspiration.


Question Answer
During a local field block what sensation is lost first?Pain and temperature first, second is touch and motor.
A local field block injected into an infected area is less active because of what action?The acidic area ofthe infection converts the anesthetic chemically thus decreasing penetration into the cell membrane.
When performing an ankle block which nerves are blocked?Saphenous, Posterior Tibial, Sural, Superficial Peroneal, and Deep Peroneal.
When performing various types of anesthesia on pediatric patients what is the common concern during anesthesia?hypothermia
What is the drug of choice to increase the threshold of convulsions during the intraoperative period?valium
What are the initial steps to perform once it is determined the patient is having a syncope reaction?Oxygen, Trendelenburg positioning, monitor vitals.
Wydase:s: works by what action?Permitting a more rapid spread of solution into the area.
When using Halothane, what vasoconstrictive drug is contraindicated?Epinephrine.
What are the adverse effects of narcotics?Respiratory depression, emesis, and dependence.(SCRAM if you see a drug dealer-Synergistic CNS depression w/other drugs, constipation, respiratory depression, addition, miosis"


Question Answer
Which inhalation agent is nonflammable?Halothane.(man trying to put out fire w/halo
Esters are hydrolyzed in the ?plasma(higher allergic potential!)
Amides are metabolized in theLIVER
What type of anesthesia causes the least interference with preexisting diseases?Regional nerve block.
During surgery if a patient becomes hyperkalemic what may you observe?Muscle weakness, cardiac conduction (EKG) changes.(man trying to put milk on EKG but its falling bc he wasnt strong enough
Which has a greater duration of action Lidocaine or Marcaine(bupivacaine)?Marcaine.(pic of canes in order of duration)
What are the various etiologies of syncope?Syncope may be due to many etiologies including vasovagal, postural hypotension, chronic orthostatic hypotension, cardiac, carotid sinus, secondary to cerebrovascular disease, etc.(PASS OUT)

Section 2

Question Answer
Vasoconstrictors are added to local anesthetics for what reason?decreases systemic absorption and prolong duration of action