Anes- Euthanasia

untimely's version from 2015-05-13 03:07


Question Answer
What are the requirements for performing euthanasia?free of stress and pain, RAPID loss of consciousness, a smooth looking death, safe, and practical (cheap/affordibility and lack of contamination of the body are also very important to consider)
what are the three steps (in order) of the process of the animal dying from euthanasia?(1) Loss of consciousness (2) Cardiac or respiratory arrest (3) loss of cerebral function
what are three possible mechanisms of euthanasia?(1) hypoxia (2) direct depression of neurons necessary for life (3) physical disruption of brain activity
the euthanasia process should minimize or eliminate what things prior to loss of consciousness?pain, anxiety, stress
euthanasia via inhalent anesthetics is only recommended for what kinda animals?only for small animals: <7kg!
three disadvantages to using inhalant anesthetics?hypoxia PRIOR to loss of consciousness (resp arrest), seizures are common, risk of pollution
inhalant euthanasia which can cause seizures?inhalant anesthetics
If you do euthanasia with inhalant anesthetic soaked in a cotton ball in a closed container, what must you remember to do?don't forgot to concurrently provide oxygen
what is the mechanism by which inhalant anesthetic causes death?respiratory arrest (high conc of gases displace O2)
what are some advantages to using carbondioxide as a inhalant euthanasia method?rapid, readily available in compressed gas cylinders, cheap, Minimal hazard to personnel, no accumulation of toxic tissue residues
what are some disadvantages to using carbon dioxide as a euthanasia method?>80% irritant to nasal mm, stress possible in some species, "diggers and divers"-- neonates have extraordinary tolerance to CO2
which population do you prolly not wanna use CO2 inhalation on?neonates-- theyre highly tolerant to CO2
how much CO2 are you recc to give, for how long, can you use it with animals with medical conditions?CAN use with animals with conditions. Slow filling is less likely to cause pain. Suitable for chicks and other lab animals. usually do 60-70% for 5 min
If an animal is euthanized by chemical means (not inhalants), what must never happen to the body?must NEVER enter the human food chain, or really the animal food chain either (vets have been fined for endangered birds dying that ate remains of poorly buried bodies)
which euthanasia chemicals are FDA approved?barbiturates
advantages of barbiturates as euthanasia agents?FDA approved, speedy, smooth euth with minimal discomfort
disadvantages of barbiturates as euth agents?IV injection necessary in most sp, controlled drugs, terminal gasp, possible excitatory phase (distressing to owner)
which euthanasia agent might cause an excitement phase and terminal gasp which can be distressing to owners?barbiturates
if you cannot give the barbiturate due to problems like size or stress of animal, what might you be able to do?IP injection (she highly recc. always using cath with cats)
What should you know about giving a barbiturate to an animal in a not IV way (Intracardiac, intrasplenic, intrarenal)ONLY DO in anesthatized/unconcious animals and the owner cannot be present
what should the concentration of pentobarbital be?HIGH conc-- 180-300mg/mL
how do you know youre using the right kinda pentobarbital to euthanize?COLOR--> it should be pink, not white
(i dont think she will ask dose) Dosages of pentobarbital vary by what factor? how do you know what to use?species, look at package insert
how does potassium chloride work as a euthanasia agent? (MOA?)it is cardiotoxic, a rapid infusion leads to cardiac arrest
advantages of potassium chloride?rapid, not controlled, less residue issues, no artifacts (necropsy)
disadvantages of potassium chloride?spasms possible, painful injection, no loss of conciousness, not approved by FDA for euthanasia in conscious animals?
which euthanasia agent will not provide loss of consciousness, and is not approved by FDA for euthanasia in conscious animals?potassium chloride (painful injection too)
KCl should only be used in animals that...are unconscious
what is T61?a combined solution which includes an anesthetic, a mm relaxant, and a local anesthetic (embutramid, mebezonium, tetracain, respectively)
if you are going to euthanize with a combined solution, what is the particular order you should pay attention to?inject the anesthetic first, then the mm relaxant, so they take place at relatively the same time. mm relaxant kicking in before anesthesia would be very unpleasant
T61--> what is the tetracain and why is it included?LA, reduced pain of injection, neuro and cardiotoxic
T61--> what is the embutramid and why is it included?anesthetic which provides deep level of anesthesia (in <25sec) and also causes cardiac and resp. arrest. (em wants to be asleep)
T61--> what is mebezonium, and what is it included?mm paralysis, causes peripheral resp arrest
what are the advantages of T61?rapid onset of action, no terminal gasps as seen with barbiturates
disadvantages of T61?no avail in US, SLOW IV INJECTION to avoid dysphoria before unconciousness, controlled drug, only IV
which euthanasia agent must be injected slowly to avoid dysphoria?T61 (dont want mm paralysis to kick in before anesthesia, its a combo drug)
list some physical methods of euthanasiacaptive bolt, gunshot, cervical dislocation, decapitation, electrocution, microwave irritation
what are some things you want to consider when you are performing euthanasia?presence of owners/children, size of animal, skills, equipment, personnel, special situations (sport events)
if you are going to give a euthanasia drug IV, you should def...have a catheter
when is the only time you should give an intracardial injection of euthanasia?ONLY under general anesthesia
what is the only drug for euth you can give IP?barbiturate
what is the ideal way to euthanize?under general anesthesia

specific animals

Question Answer
what can you use for sedation of a dog about to undergo euthanasia? (route?)acepromazine IM
what do you usually give for induction of a dog (route)?ketamine+diazepam IV
what do you usually give for euthanasia of a dog?T61 OR pentobarbital IV
what can you give to a cat IM for sedation?ketamine and midazolam
what can you give a cat IV for euthanasia?pentobarbital or T61
what can you give a cat intracardiac or IP for euthansia?pentobarbital
where do you usually admin IV euthanasia in a rabbit?ear vein (artery? idk. it's a pic)
how do you usually admin parenteral euthanasia to rodents?IP
what "premedication" do you give a horse for euth?xylazine, ketamine, diazepam (IV)
what do you give a horse for euthanasia? (route?)IV T61 or pentobarbital
what can you confirm death (with loss of brain fxn?)corneal reflx is dec, wide open pupil. (EEG was on list but crossed out. didn't explain in class why)
how can you confirm death (with cardiac arrest?)Mechanical: no more heart sounds and pulse. Electronical: ECG: "flat line"