Anemia & Leukemia Basics

olanjones's version from 2016-02-04 05:11

Section 1

Question Answer
What is hemolytic anemia?destruction of RBCs in the blood causes too much free hgb can result in hemoglobinemia (red plasma) and hemoglobinuria (dark urine) (can cause jaundice)
What disorders can cause hemolytic anemia?membrane disorders (e.g. hemolytic disease of newborn) or hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalessemia)
What is the cause of jaundice seen in hemolytic anemia?excess heme that has been converted to bilirubin but has not been conjugated by the liver
What are some of the complications associated with Sickle cell anemia?sickled cells are more likely to be destroyed, may block capillaries, cause ischemia, bone pain associated with increased RBC production
What can trigger sickle cells to "sickle" and can this be reversed?decreased O2 (from stress, exertion, temp change). Can be reversed it caught earlier and re-oxygenated.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is absolute anemia?decrease in total number of RBCs or Hgb
What is relative anemia?a reduction in red cell mass as a result of increased plasma volume (e.g. during pregnancy)
What are two types of megaloblastic anemia?cobalamin (Vit B12) deficiency (pernicious anemia) and folic acid deficiency
How does a lack of Vitamin B12 and/or a lack of Folic acid affect the body?impairs DNA synthesis causing RBCs to be enlarged and misshapen (can be more oval shaped)
What is the cause of pernicious anemia?a lack of intrinsic factor which normally binds to Vitamin B12 and helps the body absorb it.
What is the cause of cobalamin anemia?a lack of consumed or absorbed Vitamin B12 (pernicious anemia is a type of cobalamin anemia)
What are the manifestations of cobalamin anemia?Red beefy tongue, Ataxia, Paresthesia of hands and feet
What is the cause of folate deficient anemia?deficiency due to pregnancy, chronic alcoholism, chronic anticonvulsant use
What are the manifestations of folate anemia?cheilosis (fissures of mouth), stomatitis, ulceration of the mouth, neural tube defects in infants born to deficient mothers

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the most common type of anemia?Iron deficient anemia. Can be due to lack of consumption, absorption of iron or due to slow bleeds
What risk factors are associated with Fe anemia?low income, pregnancy, adolescence, elderly, infancy, heavy menstrual flow/poor intake
What are the manifestations of Fe anemia?glossitis, stomatitis, koilonychia (spoon-shaped nails), pale conjunctiva
What is post-hemorrhagic anemia?anemia from sudden blood loss, can be from trauma or surgery
What are the manifestations of post-hemorrhagic anemia?10% loss: fatigue, 20% tachy/slight postural hypotension, 40% decreased BP, rapid breathing, cold/clammy skin, 50% shock/death
What is aplastic anemia?decrease in all blood cell production due to bone marrow depression, will have symptoms of thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia

Section 4

Question Answer
What are two types of acute leukemia?Acute myeloid (onset usually around age 64), Acute lymphocytic (common in children)
What are two types of chronic leukemia?Chronic myelogenous (slow, insidious onset, more mature cells but do not function normally), Chronic lymphocytic (slow progression, malignant cells invade lymph but not usually other organs)
General manifestations of hematologic malignanciesfatigue, bruising, frequent infection, fever/night sweats, weight loss, bone pain, liver spleen lymph enlargement, elevated uric acid
What are the characteristics of Hodgkin lymphoma?presence of Reed Sternberg cells, usually painless lymph node enlargement spread in an orderly fashion. Curable in early stages
What are the characteristics of Multiple myeloma?B-cell cancer that forms masses in skeletal system. Causes pain, hypercalcemia, fractures, proteinuria, renal failure, recurrent pneumonia

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