imo132's version from 2016-12-22 23:59


Question Answer
Forearm veinsNo brachial vein. Radial & ulnar veins join basilic to form axillary. Basilic & cephalic joined in cub fossa by median cubital vein. Axillary & cephalic form subclavian
Clavipectoral fasciaAround clavicle & subclavius, around pec minor, pierced by cephalic vein, thoracoacromial trunk & lateral pectoral nerve, median pec nerve through pec minor
Superior mediastinum bonesManubriosternal joint, spine scapula, costal cartilages 2nd ribs, T4/5 vertebrae
Superior mediastinum vesselsBifurcation of pulmonary trunk, arch of aorta (2 ends), thoracic duct into L subclavian, azygos arch into SVC
Superior mediastinum othersBifurcation of trachea, L recurrent laryngeal nerve, ligamentum arteriosum, cardiac plexus
Anterior IC arterial supply1-6 from internal thoracic/mammary, 7-9 from musculophrenic (branch of internal thoracic)
Posteiror IC arterial supply1-2 from superior/supreme IC (branch of costocervical trunk from subclavian), 3-11 from posterior IC artery (from descending aorta)
IC venous drainage1 to supreme ICV (to brachiocephalic (occ R vertebral), 2-4 to superior ICV (L to brachiocephalic, R to azygous), 5-11 to hemiazygous & accessory hemiazygous (to azygous)
Internal thoracic/mammary arteryFrom 1st part subclavian after vertebral, becomes musculophrenic & superior epigastric, gives rise to anterior IC artery 1-6 (7-9 from musculophrenic)
Caval openingT8, central tendon, vena cava, R phrenic nerve, lymph nodes
Oesophageal hiatusT10, R crus, oesophagus, anterior & posterior vagal trunks, left gastric artery (from coeliac trunk)
Aortic hiatusT12, L & R crus, aorta, azygous, thoracic duct
R crusGreater & lesser R splanchnic
L crusGreater & lesser L splanchnic & hemiazygous
Medial archSympathetic trunk & psoas
Median archSplanchnics, aorta (aortic hiatus, R & L crus)
Lateral archSubcostal nerve & artery, quadratus lumborum
Diaphragm supplyPhrenic nerve (C3-5) & lower intercostal nerves (T8-12)
Branches of external carotidSuperior thyroid (to superior laryngeal & branch to SCM), ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal & maxillary
Posterior triangleOccipital contains greater occipital nerve & occipital artery, accessory nerve (C2) via SCM, inferior thyroid & transverse cervical artery, external jugular, Erb's point (cutaneous cervical nerves)
Anterior triangleCarotid has carotid sheath (common & internal carotid, internal jugular, CN X, lymph nodes), supraclavicular & submental have lymph nodes, submandibular has submandibular gland, muscular has thyroid & parathyroid
Thoracodorsal nerveMiddle subscapular, from posterior cord, C6,7,8, with subscapular artery to latissimus dorsi
Dorsal scapular nerveFrom ventral ramus C5 root, through scalenus medius with dorsal scapular artery to rhomboids & levator scapulae
Quadrangular space boundariesTeres minor (sup), teres major (inf), long head triceps (med), surgical neck humerus (lat)
Quadrangular space contentsPosterior circumflex humeral artery & vein, axillary nerve
Triangular space boundariesTeres minor (sup), teres major (inf), long head triceps (lat)
Triangular space contentsCircumflex scapular artery & vein
Triangular interval boundariesTeres major (sup), lateral head triceps (lat), long head triceps
Triangular interval contentsDeep brachial artery, radial nerve
Medial pectoral nerve
Lateral pectoral nerve
Radial nerve
Subclavius nerve
Axillary nerveFrom posterior cord, C5/6, through quadrangular space with posterior circumflex artery/vein to deltoid & teres minor, continues as lateral cutaneous nerve of arm
Suprascapular nerveFrom upper trunk, C5/6, under transverse scapular ligament to supraspinatous, around lateral spine to infraspinatous
Axillary artery branchesSuperior thoracic, thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic, subscapular, anterior & posterior circumflex humeral
1st part axillarySuperior thoracic artery
2nd part axillaryThoracoacromial trunk (deltoid, pectoral, clavicular, acromial), lateral thoracic artery
3rd part axillarySubscapular (circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal), anterior & posterior circumflex humeral
Subclavian artery branchesVertebral, internal thoracic/mammary, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk, dorsal scapular
1st part subclavianVertebral, internal thoracic, thyrocervical trunk (inferior thyroid then ascending cervical, transverse cervical, suprascapular)
2nd part subclavianCostocervical trunk (deep cervical, superior/supreme intercostal)
3rd part subclavianDorsal scapular artery
Axillary artery branchesSuperior thoracic, thoracoacromial trunk, lateral thoracic, subscapular, anterior & posterior circumflex humeral
Subclavian artery branchesVertebral, internal thoracic/mammary, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk, dorsal scapular
Axilla boundariesSerratus anterior & ribs (med), pec major (ant), biciptal groove (lat), skin (floor), subscapularis/teres major/lat dorsi (post), scapular/clavicle/1st rib (inlet)


Question Answer
Trapezius actionRotates, elevates, depresses, retracts scapula
Latissimus dorsi actionExtends, adducts, medially rotates humerus
Levator scapulae actionElevates & rotates scapula, tilts glenoid cavity inferiorly
Rhomboid major actionRetracts & rotates scapula, tilts glenoid inferiorly
Rhomboid minor actionRetracts & rotates scapula, tilts glenoid inferiorly
Splenius capitis actionLaterally flexes head
Splenius cervicis actionLaterally flexes & rotates head
Erector spinae actionLaterally flex spine, extend spine & head
Semispinalis capitis actionExtend & laterally rotate head
Semispinalis cervicis actionExtends & laterally rotates head contralaterally
Multifidus actionExtend & rotate spine to contralateral side
Rectus capitis posterior major actionExtend head & rotate face ipsilaterally
Rectus capitis posterior minor actionExtend head
Obliquus capitis superior actionExtends head
Obliquus capitis inferior actionIpsilateral face rotation
Deltoid actionAbducts, flexes & extends humerus
Supraspinatous actionAbducts humerus
Infraspinatous actionAbducts humerus
Teres major actionAdducts & medially rotates humerus
Teres minor actionLaterally rotates humerus
Subscapularis actionMedially rotates humerus
Triceps actionExtends forearm, long head adducts
Pec major actionMedially rotates, flexes & adducts humerus
Pec minor actionAnteriorly tilts & depresses scapular
Subclavius actionDepresses clavicle
Coracobrachialis actionAdducts & flexes humerus
Biceps actionSupinates & flexes forearm
Brachialis actionFlexes forearm
Pronator teres actionPronates & flexes forearm
Flexor carpi radialis actionFlexes & abducts (radially deviates) wrist
Palmaris longus actionFlexes wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris actionFlexes & adducts (ulnarly deviates) wrist
Flexor digitorum superficialis actionFlexes PIP 2-5
Flexor digitorum profundus actionFlexes DIP 2-5
Flexor pollicis longus actionFlexes IP joint thumb
Pronator quadratus actionPronates forearm
Palmaris brevis actionWrinkles medial palm skin
Abductor pollicis brevis actionAbducts thumb
Flexor pollicis brevis actionFlexes thumb
Opponens pollicis actionOpposes thumb
Abductor digiti minimi actionAbducts 5th digit
Flexor digiti minimi brevis actionFlexes 5th digit
Opponens digiti minimi actionOpposes 5th digit
Lumbricals actionFlexes MCP, extends PIP & DIP
Adductor pollicis actionAdducts thumb
Palmar interossei actionAdducts digits 2, 4 & 5 & assists lumbricals in MCP flexion
Dorsal interossei actionAbducts 2-4 & assists lumbricals in MCP flexion
Anconeous actionAssists triceps in elbow extension
Brachioradialis actionFlexes forearm when midpronated
Extensor carpi radialis longus actionExtends & abducts (radially deviates) hand
Extensor carpi radialis brevis actionExtends & abducts (radially deviates)
Extensor digitorum actionExtends digits 2-5
Extensor digiti minimi actionExtends 5th digit
Extensor carpi ulnaris actionExtends & adducts (ulnarly deviates) hand
Abductor pollicis longus actionAbducts & extends CMC of thumb
Extensor pollicis brevis actionExtends MCP of thumb
Extensor pollicis longus actionExtends MCP & IP of thumb
Internal intercostal actionDepresses rib above
Innermost intercostal actionDepresses rib above
Mylohyoid actionSupports floor of oral cavity
Stylohyoid actionElevates hyoid
Digastric actionElevates hyoid & depresses mandible
Thyrohyoid actionDepresses hyoid & elevates thyroid cartilage & larynx
Sternothyroid actionDepresses thyroid cartilage & larynx
Omohyoid actionDepresses & retracts hyoid
Sternohyoid actionDepresses hyoid
Platysma actionTenses neck skin, depresses mandible
External intercostal actionElevates rib below
Extensor indicis actionExtends digit 2
Supinator actionSupinates forearm