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Anatomy Test 3

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nicoledemott's version from 2017-11-10 20:09

Section

Question Answer
humerus medial and lateral epicondyles
ulnaolecranon, shaft, ulnar styloid
radius radial head, radial styloid, dorsal tubercle (Lister’s tubercle)
wrist scaphoid (in snuffbox)
hand metacarpals, phalanges
Superior appendicular skeletonpectoral girdle and upper limb - articulates at the sternoclavicular joint
inferior apendicular skeletonpelvic girdle and lower limb
bone that overlies 2nd - 7th ribsscapula
Glenoid cavityshallow, concave, oval fossa
Coracoid processprovides attachment for muscles and the coracoclavicular ligament
Parts of humerushead, anatomical neck, surgical neck, greater tubercle/tuberosity, intertubercular sulcus, shaft, deltoid tuberosity, and spiral groove
Anatomical neckformed by groove circumscribing head and separating it from tubercles/tuberosities
Surgical Necknarrow part of distal to tubercles/tuberosities
Intertubercular sulcusbiceps tendon
Spiral groove (radial groove)radial nerve and deep brachial artery
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Superficial veinsCephalic Veins, median cubital vein, basilic vein, median antebrachial vein
cephalic vein routelateral border of wrist-> forearm-> arm-> shoulder-> deltopectoral groove-> joins terminal part of axillary vein
median cubital vein oblique across antecubital fossa & connects cephalic vein and basilic vein
basilic vein route medial forearm-> arm-> merges with brachial v’s to form axillary vein
Deep veinsdeep to deep fascia, bear same name as arteries they acompany, and usually occur as paired veins
memorize

 

  =Section 3
Question Answer
Route of superficial lymph vessels ascending with the basilic veinenter cubital lymph nodes -> humeral axillary lymph nodes
Route of superficial lymph vessels ascending with the cephalic veinenter apical axillary lymph nodes or deltopectoral lymph nodes
Route of Deep lymph vessels ascend with deep veinsterminate in humeral axillary lymph nodes
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
C5elbow flexion
C6wrist extension
C7elbow extension
C8finger flexion
T1finger abduction
Myotomegroup of muscles that a single spinal nerve root innervates
Dermatomearea of skin that a single nerve innervates
C5-T1nerves of upper extremity derived form brachial plexus
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
Most common humerus fracture caused by fall on outstretched handsurgical neck fractures
caused by fall on outstretched hand or directly on shoulder and rotator cuff pulls fragment offavulsion fracture of greater tuberosity
caused by direct blow or twistshaft fracture
memorize

Section 6

Question Answer
Origin of pectoralis major muscleclavicular head; medial clavicle & sternocostal head and ribs
Insertion of pectoralis majorlateral lip of bicipital groove
innervation of pectoralis musclelateral and medial pectoral nerves
action of the pectoralis majoradduction and medial rotation of arm
Sternocostal head of pectoralis major muscleanterior wall of axilla and anterior axillary wall
origin of pectoralis minor m.coracoid process
insertion of pectoralis minor m. ribs 3-5
innervation of pectoralis minor m. medial pect n.
action of pectoralis m. draws scapula inferiorly and anteriorly; assists in elevating ribs for deep inspiration
serratus anterior m. origin anterior surface of medial border of scapula
serratus anterior m. insertion ribs 1 - 8
serratus anterior m. innervation long thoracic n.
action of serratus anterior m. protracts scapula, rotates scapula
called “boxer’s muscle” used when punching or reaching anteriorly & holds scapula against thoracic wall when doing push-upsserratus anterior muscle
anterior wall of axillapectoralis major m. and pectorlais minor m.
posterior wall of axillalatissimus dorsi m.
medial wall of axilaserratus anterior m.
origin of trapezius musclemedial 1/3 of nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, spines of C7-T12
insertions of trapezius musclelateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
innervation of trapezius muscleCN XI
action of descending fibers of trapezius muscleelevate scapula
action of middle fibers of trapezius muscleretract scapula
action of ascending fibers of trapezius muscledepress scapula
origin of latissumus dorsi spinous processes T8-T12, iliac crest, inferior 4 ribs
insertion of latissumus dorsi floor of bicipital groove
innervation of latissumus dorsi thoracodorsal n.
action latissumus dorsi extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; restoring the upper limb from abduction superior to shoulder (e.g. climbing, swimming)
origin of levator scapula m. transverse processes C1-4
insertion of levator scapula m. medial border of scapula superior to scapular spine
innervation levator scapula m. dorsal scapular n.
action of levator scapula m. elevates and rotates scapula; extends and laterally flexes neck
location of levator scapuladeep to SCM & trapezius
origin of rhomboid minor m. nuchal lig, spinous processes C7-T1
insertion of rhomboid minor m. medial scapular spine
innervation of rhomboid minor m. dorsal scapular n.
action rhomboid minor m. elevates scapula
origin of rhomboid major m.spinous processes T2-T5
insertion of rhomboid major m. medial border of scapula (spine to inferior angle)
innervation of rhomboid major muscle dorsal scap n.
action of rhomboid major muscle retract scapula
memorize

Section 7

Question Answer
scapulohumeral muscles that pass from scapula to humerus and act on glenohumeral jointDeltoid, teres major, supraspinatus, infraspinats, subscapularis, and teres minor
origin of deltoid lateral 1/3 clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
insertion of deltoid deltoid tuberosity of humerus
innervation of deltoid axillary n.
action of deltoid (anterior part)flexes arm
action of deltoid (middle part)abducts arm
action of deltoid (posterior part) extends arm
origin of teres major m. posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula
insertion of teres major muscle medial lip bicipital groove
innervation of teres major msucle lower subscapular n.
action of teres major muscle adducts and medially rotates arm
muscles of rotator cuffsupraspinatus m. infraspinatus m. subscapularis m. and teres minor m.
origin of supraspinatus muscle supraspinous fossa of scapula
insertion of supraspinatus muscle greater tuberosity of humerus
innervation of supraspinatus muscle suprascapular n.
action supraspinatus muscle initiates abduction of arm
origin of infraspinatus infraspinous fossa of scapula
insertion of infraspinatus muscle greater tuberosity of humerus
innervation infraspinatus muscle suprascapular n.
action of infraspinatus laterally rotates arm
origin of subscapularis m. subscapular fossa of scapula
insertion of subscapularis m. lesser tuberosity of humerus
innervation of subscapularis m. upper and lower subscapular n’s
action of subscapularis m. medially rotates arm
origin of teres minor m. middle part of lateral border of scapula
insertion of teres minor m. greater tuberosity of humerus
innervation of teres minor m. axillary n.
action of teres minor m. laterally rotates arm
memorize

Section 8

Question Answer
winging of the scapulamedial border of scapula moves laterally and posteriorly away from thoracic wall
PE of rotator cuff injuries tenderness, limitation of motion, and pain with provocative maneuvers
Imaging for rotator cuff injuriesXray and MRI
Tx for rotator cuff injuryNSAIDS, PT, Steroid injection, surgery
types of rotator cuff injuriestendinitis , bursitis , tears
which bones form the pectoral girdlemanubrium, clavicles, and scapulae
joints of the pectoral girdlesternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral
only articulation of sternoclavicular jointupper limb and axial skeleton
divided into 2 compartments by an articular discsternoclavicular joint
sternal end of clavicle articulates withmanubrium and 1st costal cartilage
anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligamentsstable joint
movemen of sternoclavicular joint rotation, anteriorly, posteriorly
arterial supply of sternoclavicular joint internal thoracic a.
acromioclavicular ligament fibrous band from acromion to clavicle
coracoclavicular ligament pair of bands that unite coracoid process to clavicle ; conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament
movement of acromiocavicular joint rotation of acromion on clavicle
arterial supply of acromioclavicular joint suprascapular a. and thoraco-acromial a.
acromioclavicular separationshoulder separation
what is a shoulder separationinjury to acromioclavicular ligaments, possibly coracoclavicular ligaments
history of pt. with acromioclavicular separation direct blow or fall on shoulder
treatment of pt. with acromioclavicular separation non-surgical or surgical depending on amount of displacement
memorize

Section 9

Question Answer
ball and socket synovial jointwide range of movement, therefore relatively unstable
shallow glenoid cavityball and socket synovial joint deepened by labrum
4 rotator cuff muscles of glenohumeral jointsupraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
functions of rotator cuff m’sto hold large head of humerus in smaller and shallower glenoid and movement of shoulder
joint capsule of glenohumeral jointloose fibrous layer and glenoid cavity to anatomic neck of humerus
2 apertures of glenohumeral jointopening b/w tuberosities for passage of biceps tendon and opening anterior to allow communication b/w subscapularis and joint
memorize

 

Question Answer
glenohumeral ligaments of glenohumeral joint3 fibrous bands that reinforce anterior part of capsule
transverse humeral ligament of glenohumeral jointbridges over intertubercular sulcus; converts groove into canal
coraco-acromial ligament of glenohumeral jointprevents superior dislocation of humeral head
subacromial superior bursa of glenohumeral jointacromion, deltoid
inferior subacromial bursa of glenohumeral joint supraspinatus tendon, capsule
memorize

Section 10

Question Answer
Anterior wall of the axillapectoralis major and minor m’s; anterior axillary fold is inferiormost part
posterior wall of the axillascapula and subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi; posterior axillary fold (lat dorsi, teres major) is inferiormost part
medial wall of the axilathoracic wall and serratus anterior
lateral wall of the axillabicipital groove of humerus
contents of the axillaaxillary a., axillary v., brachial plexus, lymphatics, and lymph nodes
this artery begins at lateral border of 1st rib and ends at inferior border of teres major m. where it has reached humerus (becomes brachial artery)axillary artery
1st part of axillary arteryb/w 1st rib and medial border of pectoralis minor m., superior thoracic a.
2nd part of axillary arteryposterior to pectoralis minor, thoraco-acromial a., lateral thoracic a.
3rd part of the axillary artery lateral border of pec minor to inferior border teres major m., subscapular a., anterior circumflex a., and posterior circumflex a
memorize

 

Question Answer
4 branches of the thoraco-acromial arteryacromial, deltoid, pectoral, clavicular
descends along lateral border of subscapularis m. on posterior wallsubscapular artery
this artery divides into circumflex scapular a. and thoracodorsal a.subscapular artery
curves posteriorly around lateral border of scapulacircumflex scapular artery
supplies latissimus dorsi m.thoracodorsal artery
anterior circumflex humeral arterypasses laterally
posterior circumflex humeral arterypasses medially through quadrangular space (with axillary n.) then through posterior wall of axilla
boundaries of the quadrangular spaceteres minor (superior), teres major (inferior), triceps long head (medial), humerus (lateral)
contents of the quadrangular spaceaxillary n., posterior circumflex humeral a.
boundaries of the triangular spaceteres minor (superior), teres major (inferior), triceps long head (lateral)
contents of the triangular spacecircumflex scapular artery
boundaries of the triangular intervalteres major (superior), triceps long head (medial), humerus (lateral)
contents of the triangular intervalradial n., profunda brachii a.
this vein is formed by union of brachial v.’s and basilic v.axillary vein
axillary vein at inferior border of teres major to lateral border of 1st rib, where is becomes this veinsubclavian vein
memorize

Section 11

Question Answer
drains medial wallpectoral nodes
drains posterior wallsubscapular nodes
drains lateral wallhumeral nodes
apical nodes --> subclacian trunk --> ?right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct
central nodes drain whereapical nodes (in apex of axilla)
all above drain to central nodesdeep to pectoralis minor
major nerve network supplying upper extremity, begins in the neck and extends into the axillabrachial plexus
brachial plexus is formed by the roots ofanterior rami of C5-T1
roots of the brachial plexus pass throughgap b/w anterior and middle scalene m’s with the subclavian a.
Branches from the rootsdorsal scapular n. --> rhomboids and long thoracic n.--> serratus anterior
Branches from the trunkssuprascapular n. --> suprasinatus & infraspinatus and nerve to subclavius --> subclavius
Branches from the cordslateral pectoral nerve, median pectoral nerve, median cutaneous nerve of arm, median cutaneous of forearm, upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve, and thoracodorsal nerve
median pectoral n. pectoralis major and minor
median cutaneous n. of arm sensation to medial arm
median cutaneous n. of forearm sensation to medial forearm
upper subscapular n. subscapularis
lower subscapular n. subscapularis, teres major
thoracodorsal n. latissimus dorsi
Terminal branches of the brachial plexusmusculocutaneous nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve, axillary nerve, radial nerve
musculocutaneous nerve innervatescoracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis, sensation to lateral forearm
median nerve innervatescoracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis, sensation to lateral forearm
ulnar nerve innervatesflexor carpi ulnaris m., ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, most intrinsic m’s of hand, palmar skin (ulnar side)
axillary nerve innervatesteres minor and deltoid
radial nerve innervatesall m’s of posterior compartments of arm and forearm, skin of posterior arm and forearm and dorsal of hand lateral to axial line of digit
memorize