Anatomy Species Differences Cr Half

isabellepjk's version from 2017-05-01 21:33


Question Answer
Explain the main differences in vertebral columns of Horses, Pigs, Cows, and birdsAll have 7 cervical
Horse: C7-T18-L6-S5-Ca15-21
Cow: C7-T13-L7-S5
Pig: C7-T14/15-L6/7-S4-Ca20/23
Bird: C13/17
Explain the main differences in the Nuchal Ligament between Ruminants, Pigs, and horsesHorse: the funicular portion widens over the withers, it is paired, it has a cranial and a cd nuchal bursa (cr is poll evil); Lamellar part is also paired, has fenestrations, and has a supraspinous bursa. Horses has increased friction in this area over cows
Ruminants: the Cr lamellar is paired and the cd is unpaired. They have less friction in this area compared to horses
Pigs: do not have a nuchal ligament
Explain the main differences in the cleidomastoideus between rums/pigs and horsesRums and Pigs have a clediomastoideus and a cledioccipitalis
Horses only have a cleidomastoideus
Explain the main differences in the sternocephalicus muscle across the speciesCows and Goats have a sternomastoideus and a sternomandibularis
Sheep have ONLY the sternomastoideus (s, as in maStoideus, for sheep)
Horses only have Sternomandibularis
Explain the main differences in the subclavius muscle between a horse, cow, goat, and pigHorses it is large and runs along the scapula
In cows it is vestigeal
Goats: Well developed
Pigs: Large
Explain the main differences in Cervical lymph nodes between cows, small rums, pigs and horses
Which are "king"?
All domestic species have well developed superficial cervical!
Cows have Cr/Mid/Cd Deep cervical LNs,
Small ruminants and horses have cd deep cervical LNs
Pigs have cd deep AND their superficials are in three groups: dr/mid/ventral superficial Lns
Cd are king!
Explain the main differences in the thyroid between horses, small ruminants, cows, and pigsHorses and Small rums have a fibrous isthmus and a smooth body
Cows have a glandular isthmus and a lobulated/flat body
Pigs have a glandular isthmus and the body is fused (Not paired)
Explain the main differences in the carotid sheath contents across the speciesALL are the same, just the horse does not have the IJv.
VgS trunk, Common carotid a., Recurrent Laryngeal N.
Explain the borders of the jugular groove in a horse, cow/goat, and sheepHorses: Dr-Cleidomastoideus, Vt-sternoceph, Md-omohyoideus, CdVt-Cutaneous Colli
Cows and Goats: Cr/Md-sternomast, Dr-Clediomast, Vt-Sternomand
Sheep: Cr-none, Vt-sternomast
Explain the main differences in the esophagus between horses and ruminantsHorses: skeletal up to the heart and then smooth after
Rums: all skeletal


Question Answer
Explain the main differences in the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection across the species (sheep is a little special!)All end at the last rib!
Pigs: CCJ 7
Horses: Starts CCJ 8
Cows: CCJ 7/8 to the mid 11th rib
Goats: CCJ 6
Sheep CCJ 9, last rib, THEN L1 transverse process
Explain the main differences in the Mediastinum across the species Horse and Sheep: Fenestrated (horse fenestrated caudally; sheep OCCASIONALLY)
Cow and goats: intact and well supported by submesothelial CT
Explain the main differences in performing thoracocentesis between a horse and cows/small rumsHorses: ICS 7
Cows and Small rums: ICS 6/7
Explain the main differences in the Lungs across the species Horses: NON lobulated OR lobated, Left has cr/cd, Right has cr/cd/mid
Cows: BEST lobulation, Left has Cr (with it's own Cr/Cd parts) and Cd; Right has Cr (also with its own Cr/Cd parts), Cd, Middle, and accessory; also have a tracheal bronchus (so does pig)
Smalls rums are the same as the cow but they are poorly lobulated
Pigs: Also well lobulated; Left has Cr (with its own Cr/Cd parts) and Cd, Right has Cr/Mid/Cd/Acc parts; Contains tracheal bronchus like rums
Explain the main difference in the azygous vein across the species Horses: RIGHT develops the best (horses are always right)
Pigs and Cows: Left is the main, a partial right is possible
Small rums: Left is the main, occasionally both are present fully
Explain the main differences in the heart between horses, ruminants and pigsHorses: have two CARTILAGO cordis and 2 sternopericardiac ligaments; is positioned nearly vertical
Ruminants: have 2 OSSA cordis; 2 sternopericardiac ligaments; Contain annuli fibrosis which is CT that separates the atria from the ventricles
Pigs: NO cartilage/bones, no sternopericardiac ligaments; oblique placement
Explain the main differences in the major arteries across the speciesHorses/Cows/Small Rum: Both R/L subclavian arteries arise from the brachiocephalic trunk
Pigs: The brachiocephalic trunk and the L subclavian artery are separate
Explain the main differences in the dominant coronary artery supply blood to the heart across the species Ruminants: LEFT is larger than right
Horses and Pigs: RIGHT is larger
What are ALL the possible thoracic lymphnodes in all the species
Explain the main differences in the thoracic LNs across the species
4 lymphocenters; Dr thoracic, Vt thoracic, Mediastinal. Bronchial/Tracheobronichial
Dr Thoracic: Intercostal and Thoracic Aortic
Vt Thoracic: Cr and Cd
Mediastinal: Cr/Mid/Cd
Bronchial/Tracheobronchial: L/R/Cr/Mid

Thoracic aortic (Dr Thoracic) variable in all species
Middle Mediastinal are absent in Pigs
Cr/Cd Mediastinal are poorly developed/absent in horses
Horse has pulmonary middle mediastinal
Middle/Right Bronchial are absent in sheep
Only Rums and Pigs have Cr Tracheobronchial


Question Answer
Explain the main differences in the general stomach between the cows/rums (5), Pigs (4), and Horses (7)Cows and small rums obv have the four parts; They have abomasal folds and the abomasal groove and the abomasum is glandular.
Ruminants and Pigs both have a torus pyloricus.
Pigs: situated on the left side mostly; Large; has the diverticulum ventriculi
Horses: Small and simple with a deep angular notch; Makes zero contact with the abdominal floor; saccus cecus is the blind sac; Has a margo plicatus which divides the proximal non-glandular portion from the distal glandular portion; has a thick cardiac sphincter; has 2 pyloric sphincters
Explain the main differences in the pancreas between cows, small rums, pigs and horsesCows: Body is small, Right lobe is long, and the left lobe is broad; has only the accessory pancreatic duct (minor duodenal papilla)
Small Rums: Same shape, but have the MAJOR pancreatic duct (major duodenal papilla)
Pigs: Only the accessory pancreatic duct (minor duodenal papilla)
Horses: Sits mainly on the right side; has BOTH the major and the accessory pancreatic duct with the bile duct
Explain the main differences noted in the cecum between horses, ruminants, and pigsHorses: 4 taenia coli; is very large; base is attached to the R kidney; palpable per rectum; the body has the cecocolic fold
Cows and Small Rums: Is cylindrical, long, tubular, and smooth; No bands; on the right side
Pigs: has 2 taenia coli; is sacculated; more on the left side; Is directed CdVt
Explain the main differences noted in the Colon between horses, cows, goats, sheep, and pigsHorses: Ascending/Large colon order-RV, Sternal Flexure, LV, Pelvic Flexure, LD, Diaphragmatic Flexure, RD; Taenia 444-1322 (Cecum, RV, LV, LD, RD, Transverse colon, Descending colon)
Cows: Ascending colon has proximal (sigmoid), spiral, and distal loops; the spiral loops has 2.5 turns
Goats: Proximal (sigmoid), distal and spiral loops with 4 turns
Sheep: Proximal (sigmoid), distal, and spiral loops with 3 turns
Pig: Conical and spiraled ascending colon; centripetal coils are sacculated with haustra (2 taenia coli); Centrifugal coils are smooth
Explain the main differences noted in the jejunal LNs in horses/pigs, cows, and small ruminantsHorses and Pigs: Found in the root of the mesentery
Cows: found between the jejunum and the last centrifugal coil
Small Rums: Found between the 1st centripetal coil and the last centrifugal coil
Explain the main differences and parts noted in the Liver between the horse (3). Cows (4), and Pigs (3)Horses: Right of the medial plane; Doesn't make contact with the abd floor; Parts=LL/M, Q, R, Cd with process, NO papillary
Cows: Not lobated; all on the right side, lies obliquely; Left is positioned CrVt; Q; Right is positioned CdDr; Cd with process and papillary process ; papillary is small and ill-defined.
Pigs: Lobated AND lobulated; No renal impression; Cd with process, no papillary process
Explain the main differences noted in the Gall Bladder between horses, cows, sheep, and pigsHorses: don't have one
Cows: Pear shaped
Sheep: elongated
Pigs: present
Explain the main differences noted in the Spleen between horses, cows, small rums, and pigsHorses:Cr border is concave, Cd border is convex; Has a gastrosplenic, a phrenicosplenic and renosplenic ligaments
Cows: is flat and tongue shaped; is attached to the rumen
Small rums: also flat but rectangular or triangular in shape
Pigs: Long and narrow; attached vertically to the stomach; mostly in the thoracic cage
Explain the main differences noted in the kidneys in cows, small rums, horses, and pigs
Name which species have renal crests, pelvises, sinuses
Horses: Retroperitoneal; only the left is palpable per rectum; left is bean shaped/right is heart shaped; Unipyramidal
Cow: Lobated; Left is twisted/right is flattened/oval; Contain papillae and calyces
Small rums: both are bean shaped
Pigs: Both are at the same level; only lobated internally; flat and long; 10 minor calyces with 2 major calyces; have papillae and calyces

Renal Crest: Horse and Small rums
Renal Pelvis: Horse, Pig, Small Rums (pig pelvis)
Renal Sinus: Horse