Anatomy Species Differences Cd Half ish

isabellepjk's version from 2017-05-02 01:34


Question Answer
Explain the differences in the pelvis between the Cow, Horses, sheep, and pigsHorses: Pelvic entrance is round and wide; The pelvic axis and the floor is almost horizontal. The lateral walls have a lot of soft tissue (ischial tuberosity is flat; iliac crest is thin and concave.)
Cows have a 45D slope with a concave roof and floor. The pelvic inlet is narrow; The tuber ischiadicum is trfid
Sheep: The floor is flat and horizontal; has slender iliac shafts with a straight iliac crest; tuber is pronounced and lateral
Pig: Has a straight birth canal with a large pelvic inlet; sacrosciatic ligament
Explain the differences in the Hip/gluteal region between the cow and horseHorses: large gluteal muscles; convex rump; Vt sacroiliac joints and others, broad sacrotuberus ligament
Cows: Small gluteal mm; gluteobiceps; no internal obturator; no articularis coxae; concave rump
Explain the differences in the urethra between the Cow and horseHorses: Urethra is short and predisposed to prolapse; Pelvic and extrapelvic (spongiose) parts; NO urethralis muscle at the origin, the rest has muscle on it; Colliculus seminals (ejaculatory ducts open on the sides); Urethral process and fossa glandins; urethral sinus
Cow: Males have a urethral recess and females have the suburethral diverticulum
Explain the differences in the scrotum between the Cow, small ruminants and pig,Bull: Glaborus like a pig
Boar: Glaborus
Small Rums: very short hairs
Horses: Skin and dartos are the main tissue layers; Midline forms the scrotal septum and scrotal ligament ; also has fasical sheaths, external spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia, and internal spermatic fascia
Explain the differences in the testes between the horse, Cow, Small rums, and PigHorses: Round or oval; horizontal long axis; flattened MdLt; spermatic cord is nearly perpendicular; the mediastinum testis is indistinct; epidid is Dr
Cows: Md Epididymus, vertical long axis; oval/bottle shaped; Yellow
Small rums: CdMd epididymus; vertical axis, white
Pigs: Dr epididymus
Explain the differences in the accessory sex glands between the Horse, Pig, Sheep and cow?Horse: NO DISS PROSTATE, but all others are present
Small rums: NO BODY OF THE PROSTATE, but all others present
Explain the differences in the penis between Horses, Cows, Small rums, and pigsHorses: Corpus cavernosum is largely smooth muscle oriented in the trabecular with large cavernous spaces --> Musculocavernosus type, increases in length and diameter at erection
Cow: Fibroelastic, not very cavernous; fused tunic; sigmoid flexure; narrow external urethral opening
Small Rums: Fibroelastic, very cavernous, free urethral process; Sheep has the tubercululm spongiosum
Pigs: Fibroelastic
Explain the differences in the prepuce between the Horse, Cow, and pigHorse: Has tons of folds (LOOK AT THE DIAGRAM); Inner/preputial fold with preputial ring; outer/external part with preputial orifice
Pigs: Have the preputial diverticulum
Cow/Smalls: External is hairy and continuous with vt wall and internal is hairless --> BULL: ; the internal lamina can prolapse; it is easily lacerated
Explain the differences in the ovary between the Horse, Cow, small rum and pigPig: Oval with protruding follicles and CL; close to the pelvic inlet, distinct bursa but the ovary are not fully enclosed
Cow: VtLt border of pelvic inlet; oval and small; follicles and CL above the surface
Small Rums: VtLt border of the pelvic inlet.
Horse: Sublumbar; mobile mesovarium; largest of all species; Depression is the ovulation fossa or ovarian fossa; follicles within the deep substance; New follicles devlope at 40 days of pregnancy
Explain the differences in the Uterus between the Horse, Cow, and pigCow: Bicornuate; Spiral uterine horn; Oviduct merges gradually with the horn; uterine horn widens pxdt; internal uterine velum; Caruncles (uterus) + Cotyledone (fetus) = placentome; body is single and small
Small rums/sheep: 1 intercornuate ligament and concave caruncles
Pigs: Horn is the longest and flexious with a smooth internal surface; Body is single and small
Horses: Flat and T shaped; Oviduct is round and blunt; relatively short; broad ligament suspension as remnant of round ligament of uterus; endometrial cups; HIPPOMANES with no known fx; body is the longest
Explain the differences in the Cervix between the Horse, Cow, and pigCows: Plica circulares; smaller longitudinal folds; Cd circular fold is the portio vaginals; vaginal fornices
Small rums: SHEEP: 6 plicae circulares
Pigs: longest cervix; longitudinal folds and mucosal prominences (pulvini cervicales); NO FORNICES
Horses: Easy to cath/AI due to a straight cervical canal; annular vaginal fornix with radial folds ROSE BUD/WILTED ROSE
Explain the differences in the ligaments of the female repro ligs between the Horse, small rums, Cow, and pigHorse: Suspensory ligament regresses; round ligament is rudimentary
Cow: No suspensory/Round ligament; the Broad ligament is expansive and can lead to torsion if the uterus is on it;
Small Rums: Suspensory is vestigial and the round is absent
Round ligament is absent in Pigs
Explain the differences in the vagina and vestibule between the Horse, Cow, small rums, and pigCow: Cd Minor vestibular glands; Major vestibular glands (Bartholins); Long; intraperitoneal CrDr, Large suburethral diverticulum
Goats: Small subU diverticulum; No vestibular glands; Sheep: Possibly no minor or major vestibular glands
Pigs: Long vestibule; small suburethral diverticulum
Horses: Vestibule is highly dilatable; Two rows of vestibular glands
Explain the differences in the Vulva and clitoris in the horse, cow, small rums, and pigsCows: Long clitoral body and a shallow or absent clitoral fossa
Pigs: also shallow or absent clitoral fossa
Horses: Glans clitoridis which is surrounded by the fossa clitoridis
Explain the differences in the supranumerary teats in cows and small ruminantsCows: May be CdVt;
Goats/Sheep: may be cranial
Explain the differences in mammae including number of sinuses and teats between mares, cows, small rums, and pigsHorses: 2 (inguinal) which are hemispherical; each teat has two teat orifices
Cows: 4 inguinal with 1 gland/sinus/duct per mamma
Sheep: 2 inguinal; 1 gland/sinus/duct per mamme; short and conical teats; distinct intermam groove
Goats: 6-9 glands/sinuses/ducts per mammae
Pig: 10-18 thorcoinguinal with 2-3 glands/mamma


Question Answer
Explain where you could do a high epidural in cows, small rums, and pigsCow: Between L1 and L2
Small Rums and Pigs: Lumbosacral space
Explain where you could do a low epidural in cows and small ruminantsThey're the same! In the sacrocaudal space or between Cd1 and Cd2
Explain some differences found in the biceps brachii muscle between horses, cows, and small rumsHorses: The tendon of origin is partly cartilaginous and partial ossification is a cause of lameness; They have a VERY well developed lacterus fibrosus and there is also an intertubucular bursa which is separate from the shoulder joint
Cows: The bursa is also separate but the lacterus fibrosus is poorly developed.
Smalls: The lacertus fibrosus is well developed. In SHEEP the the bursa is connected to the shoulder joint capsule; in GOATS it is separate.
What is important about the radioulnar muscles in a cow and a horse?Cows: have no brachioradialis, supinator, or pronator quadratus; there is a small/fibrous pronator teres.
small rums are the same
Horse: Tendons of the extensor muscles are secured at the carpus by extensor retinaculum and are lubricated by synovial sheaths and bursae; ALL extensors are innervated by the radial nerve; flexors are secured by the flexor retinaculum and are mainly innervated by the median and ulnar nerves
What is missing from the femur of the cow and small ruminantsThird trochanter
How many patellar ligaments can be found in horses, cows, small rums, and pigs?3 in horses and cows; 1 in small rums and pigs
Horses: Medial, middle (intermediate), and lateral ligament)
What is unique about the tibia/fibula in cows and small rums?The tibia is twisted. The medial malleolus is fused with the tibia
Explain the differences in the tarsal bones of the Horse, Cows, Small rums, and pigsCows: 5 total plus the lateral malleolus; Proximal row: Talus and calcaneous; Middle: Central and 4 fused; Distal: 1, 2&3 fused
Small rums are the same
Pigs: 7, all are separate
Horses: 6 total: Talus and calcaneous (which are shorter and thicker than in cows), small fused 1&2, Central, 3, and double decker 4
Explain the differences in the MT bones of Cows, Horses, Small rums, and pigsHorses: 1 and 5 are absent
CANNON bone is MT 3; 2 and 4 are splint bones and have "buttons"; there is ONE articular condyle on the distal end of the large MT bone
Cows: 1 and 5 are absent; 2 is very small and basically a sesamoid; 3 and 4 are fused
Pigs: 1 is absent and 2 and 5 are non-functional
What is the dental formula of Cows, horses, pigs, and small rumsHorses: 40 TOTAL; I3/3, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3
Cow/small rums: 32 TOTAL; I0/3, C0/1, P3/3, M3/3
Pigs: 44 TOTAL; I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M3/3
What are the eruption times for teeth of cows and goatsCows: I1 1.5-2 years, I2 2-2.5 years, I3 3 years, I4 3.5-4 years
Goats: I1 1.5 years, I2 2 years, I3 2.5 years, I4 3 years
Explain the differences in the tongue between Horses, Cows, and pigsHorses: Poorly define and short median sulcus/groove; Dorsal lingual cartilage, not usually used for grooming
Cows: Torus linguae, fossa lingua
Pigs: babies have marginal papillae
What is the master lymphnode of the head in Ruminants, Horses, and pigsHorses and Pigs: MEDIAL retropharyngeal
Ruminants: LATERAL retropharyngeal