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Anatomy of Midgut and Hindgut

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benryan95's version from 2015-05-11 16:18

Section

Question Answer
Which structures form the midgut?Distal half of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
Which artery supplies the midgut?Superior mesenteric artery
Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the midgut?Vagus
Which nerve provides sympathetic innervation to the midgut?Lesser splanchnic nerve
Which structures form the hindgut?Distal 1/3 of trasnverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
Which main artery supplies the hindgut?Inferior mesenteric artery
Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the midgut?vagus
Which nerve provides sympathetic innervation to the hindgut?Lumbar splanchnic nerves
Where is the mesentery attached to the posterior body wall?Duodenal junction on left side of L2 to the ileocolic junction + the right sacro-iliac joint
What is the function of the mesentery?Attaches jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall
Which feels thicker, the jejunum or the ileum?The jejunum
Which is more vascular, the jejunum or the ileum?The jejunum
Which has longer vasa recta, the jejunum or the ileum?The jejunum
Which has more arterial arcades, the jejunum or the ileum?The ileum
Which has larger arterial arcade loops, the jejunum or the ileum?The jejunum
Which branches of the superior mesenteric artery supply the jejunum and ileum?Jejunal and ileal arteries
Approximately how long is the small intestine?6m
Which has more, thicker and highly folded plicae circulares, the jejunum or the ileum?jejunum
How are the plicae circulares in the duodenum arranged?They become gradually larger and more numerous
Which structures of the large intestine are intraperitoneal?caecum, appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, upper 1/3 of rectum
Which structures of the large intestine are retroperitoneal?Ascending colon, Descending colon, lower 2/3 of rectum
Where does the transverse mesocolon attach?Along transverse colon, Inferior border of pancreas, parietal peritoneum
Why are the paracolic gutters important in spread of infection and cancer?They allow a passage for infections and cancer
What are teniae coli made of?3 separate ribbons of smooth muscle
What is the marginal artery of the colon?A continuous arterial channel around the colon
What is the ileocaecal valve for?Preventing retrograde flow of caecal contents into the ileum
Out of the ascending, descending and sigmoid colon, which has the largest diameter?Ascending
At which vertebral level does the rectum begin?S3
What is different about the internal aspect of the rectum?no haustra, teniae coli replaced by outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
Which 2 vessels unit to form the hepatic portal vein?Superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein
Which structures course through the hepatoduodenal ligament?Hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery proper, common bile duct
Where does lymph from the GI tract eventually drain into?Cisterna chyli
Where is the cisterna chyli located?Between abdominal aorta and IVC, anterior to L1 and L2 vertebrae
Where does lymph from the cisterna chyli drain into?Thoracic duct
What is visceral pain and pressure information conveyed in?Splanchnic nerves
What are the spinal levels of the greater splanchnic nerves?T5-T9 (epigastric region - lower chest and upper abdomen)
What are the spinal levels of the lesser splanchnic nerves?T10-T11 (umbilical region - mid-abdomen)
What are the spinal levels of the least and lumbar splanchnic nerves?T12-L2
What are the spinal levels of the pelvic splanchnic nerves?S2-S4
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