Anatomy of Lower GI

kkaitlyn96's version from 2017-04-30 00:48

Section 1

Question Answer
How long is the small intestine?7 meters or 23 feet
How long is the large intestine?5 feet
Where is does the large intestine start?right lower quadrant
3 things about Small bowel seriestimed, single contrast, often paired with upper GI
2 things about a Barium Enemaoften a double contrast, study of large intestine
Where does the small intestine start?pyloric valve

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
Where is the duodenum?RUQ, LUQ
Where is the jejunum?LUQ, LLQ
Where is the ileum?RUQ, RLQ, LLQ
What is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine?duodenum
What is the most fixed portion of the sm. intestine?duodenum
How long is the duodenum?10 in
What landmark is in the duodenum?C loop
Where does the jejunum begin?duodenojejunal flexure
How much of the small bowel is the jejunum?2/5
What texture does the jejunum have?feathery
What ligament holds the jejunum in place?Treitz
How much of the sm bowel is the ileum?3/5
What is the longest part of the sm intestine?ileum
What is the portion of the sm intestine with the smallest diameter?ileum
Where does the ileum meet the large intestine?ileocecal valve, RLQ
What do the folds in the jejunum help do?digest nutrients
What does villi do?absorbs nutrients from blood stream

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the 4 parts of the large intestine?Cecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
What does colon mean?Ascending, Transverse, Descending, Sigmoid, and colic flexures
The right colic flexure is also known ashepatic
The left colic flexure is also known assplenic
What flexure is higher and why?Left because the right is pushed down by the liver
What is the widest part of the large intestine?cecum
Where is the cecum?proximal end of large intestine, below ileocecal valve
Where is the appendix?attached to cecum
How long is the appendix?2-20cm

Section 4

Question Answer
Where is the terminal ileum?where small intestine meets cecum
What does the ileocecal valve do?prevents reflux, and prevents things from quickly going into cecum
What is the best way to see appendicitis?ultrasound compression
Where does the rectum begin?S3
Where is the rectum?sigmoid to anus
How long is the rectum?4 1/2 in
What is the rectal ampulla?dilated portion, anterior to coccyx
The rectum has how many curves?2

Section 5

Question Answer
What does the large intestine have that the small intestines do not?haustrum pouches
What are haustrum pouches formed by?taeniae coli (3 bands of muscle)
In a double contrast study, when the patient is supine what is in the transverse colon?air
In a double contrast study, when the patient is prone what is in the transverse colon?barium

Section 6

Question Answer
Where does digestion mainly occur?sm intestine
Where does absorption occur?sm intestine
Where does re-absorption occur?sm and lg intestine
Where does elimination occur?lg intestine
Feces is _________ % water and _________% solid material65, 35

Section 7

Question Answer
Small intestine 2 movements-peristalsis and rhythmic segmentation
What is rhythmic segmentation?localized contractions of areas containing food
Large intestine 4 movements-peristalsis, haustral churning, mass peristalsis, and bowel movement
What is haustral churning?pouches fill when relaxed, then contracted to move it to the next pouch
What is mass peristalsis?entire lg intestine contents moves to sigmoid colon

Section 8

Question Answer
Enteritisinflammation of sm intestine
gastroenteritisinflammation of sm intestine and stomach
neoplasmcancer/ tumor
malabsorption syndromefailure to absorb nutrients through sm intestines
iliusblockage- 2types (mechanical and paralytic/ adynamic)
Mechanical iliusphysical blockage (air fluid levels)
Paralytic iliusperistalsis stops

Section 9

Question Answer
When is using iodine risky?pediatric or geriatric patients due to dehydration
When do small bowel series end?When barium reaches ileocecal valve
What is small bowel series prep?NPO 8 hours before, No fiber
When doing a small bowel series how many cups of barium are given?2
When doing a upper GI before the small bowel series how many cups of barium are given?1
What helps with an asthenic patient?trendelenburg

Section 10

Question Answer
What is enteroclysis?double contrast small bowel, uses a catheter that goes into the dudenojejunal flexure
What is the intubation method?single contrast, NG tube, decompress small bowel
When is the intubation method used?diagnostic and therapeutic

Section 11

Question Answer
colitisinflammation of the colon
Diverticulitis pouches
volvulvustwisting of intestines
What does glucagon do?reduce abdominal spasms

Section 12

Question Answer
What position does the patient need to be in for a barium enema?Sims
Insert the tip on what breathing?expiration so abdominal muscles relax
When inserting the tip what direction do you go in?toward umbilicus, then superiorly and anteriorly
How far do you insert the tip?3-4 in
How high should the enema bag be?no higher than 24 in above table
Double contrast shows what?Diverticulitis and polyps
Two stagebarium first then air
Single stagebarium and air at the same time
Post procedure instructionsHigh fiber, High fluid

Section 13

Question Answer
Who performs the insertion on a Colostomy BE?radiologist
What is different about a pediatric procedure?moves fast, 15-20 min films
What BE tip is used for pediatrics?flexible #10 french
kVp for single contrast100-125
kVp for double contrast90-100
kVp for water soluble80-90

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