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Anatomy Lecture Exam 1 part 2

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michelleburkee2's version from 2016-09-16 21:27

Section 1

Question Answer
charge of protonpositive
charge of neutronneutral
charge of electronnegative
parts of atom found in nucleusproton and neutron
parts of atom found roatating around nucleuselectron
ion def.a charged atom due to a loss or gain of an electron or electrons
ion that carries a positive chargecation
ion the carries a negative chargeanion
some ions will function as _______ in the body or will function to maintain _________electrolytes; or to maintain or modify solute concentration in body fluids potentially setting up a gradient to promote osmosis
2 or more atoms bonded togethermolecules
bonds formed via electrostatic interactions ionic
bonds formed via sharing of electronscovalent bonds
bonds formed between polar molecules. A weak attraction between the partially positive end of one molecule and the slightly negative end of another moleculehydrogen bonds
2 types of covalent bondspolar and nonpolar
4 functions of H2O in the bodytrasnports, lubricates, cushions, and excretes waste
what type of molecule is H2O?polar
H2O takes a long time to absorb heat (T/F)false. H2O has the ability to absorb large amounts of heat quickly
is H2O a solute or solvent in the body?solvent
How can hydrophobic molecules go through H2O based fluids in the body?they require carrier proteins to escort them through the H2O based fluids of the body
how do acids dissociate in H2O?they dissociate into H+ ions in H2O
how do bases dissociate in H2O?they diisociate into OH- in H2O
is the normal pH of blood considered to be more acidic or basic?basic. normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45. Above 7 on pH scale is considered to be more basic
inorganic compoundslack carbon
water is an example of an _____ compoundinorganic
organic compoundscontain carbon
4 categories of organic compoundscarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
how are all organic compounds assembled?dehydration synthesis
how are all organic compounds broken down?hydrolysis
most end in -osecarbohydrates
polysacharide plant storage form of sugarstarch
polysacharide "fiber" structural plant carbcellulose
polysacharide animal storage form of sugarglycogen
amphipathicpart polar and part nonpolar
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
ions that are electrolytes in the body (4)Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl-
some function to maintain or modify solute concentration in body fluids, potentially setting up a gradient to promote osmosiselectrolytes
what type of bond usually creates salts?ionic bonds
a molecule with a partially postive charge at one end and a partially negative charge at the other endpolar molecule
hydrogen bonds are strong (T/F)false. they are weak bonds
covalent bonds like CO2 are formed by differing elements so electrons are likely to be shared unequally resulting in slightly opposing charges at different ends of the molecule. These molecules are termed polar
covalent bonds like O2formed by same element so the electrons are shared equally and are termed nonpolar
how does H2O trasnport in the body?dissolves substances and moves them through the body ex/ blood and lymph
how does H2O lubricate in the body?decreases friction between body structures ex. serous and synovial fluids
how does H2O cushion in the body?shock absorption ex. cerebronspinal fluid of brain and spinal cord
how does H2O excrete waste in the body?substances dissolved in urine and sweat are eliminated from the body
adhesionthe attraction between H2O molecules and other molecules
cohesionthe attraction between H2O molecules and other H2O molecules
how does H2O function in blood regarding heat?H2O in blood absorbs heat produced by cells and distributes it throughout the body
how does H2O in sweat function regarding heat?sweat absorbs heat and brings heat to body's surface and as sweat evaporates the heat is thus released
what is the universal solvent because most solutes dissolve in it?H2O
osmosis def.is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
what is this an example of: H2O--> H+ + OH-H2O dissociating into two ions
the more ___ the stronger the acidH+
the more ___ the stronger the baseOH-
what is the normal pH in the body (range)7.35-7.45
an acid solution can be neutralized bythe addition of a base
a basic solution can be neutralized by adding an acid
elements in carbohydratesC, H, O
elements in lipidsC,H,O (less O than in carbs)
elements in proteinC,H,O,N, and S
elements in Nucleic AcidsC,H,O,N, and P
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
ionic bond defbonds formed via electrostatic interactions
polar covalent bondformed by 2 different elements. electrons are shared unequally resulting in slightly opposing charges at different ends of the molecule
nonpolar covalent bondformed of 2 atoms of the same element so the electrons are shared equally
how do H2O molecules bind to eachother?via hydrogen bonds because H2O is polar
cohesion leads tosurface tension in H2O molecules near the surface of H2O
A _____ dissolves a _____. (solvent/solute)solvent dissolves a solute
what kind of substances dissolve in H2O?polar substances. termed as hydrophillic
what kind of substance do NOT dissolve in H2O?nonpolar substance. termed as hydrophobic
how does H2O shift across membranes?via osmosis
how does H2O move through vessels (ex. blood)by moving from areas of high pressure to lower pressure
(T/F) H2O has the ability to dissociate into ionstrue
weak bases absorb _________ H+ while stronger bases accept ____weak bases accept fewer H+ while stronger bases accept many
is 7.1 considered to be normal pH in the body?no
A buffer helps prevent pH changes by accepting ____ or donating _____by accepting H+ from excess acid or donating H+ to exess base
ratio of the elements in carbohydrates1:2:1(C:H:O)
what has more oxygen in its structure, carbohydrates or lipids?carbohydrates
function of carbsan energy source for cellular functions
are carbs H2O soluable?yes
sugars includemonosacharies and disacharides
what is a starcha polysacharide. It contains many sugars. It is the plant storage form of sugar
where is glycogen stored in the body?in the liver and muscle cells
what are triglycerides composed of?three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
where are triglycerides stored?in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and around organs as visceral fat
what are the building blocks of proteins?amino acids
6 functions of proteinsstructural, regulatory, contractile, immunological, transport, and catalytic
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
is H2 a polar or nonpolar covalent bond?nonpolar covalent bond
is CO2 a polar or nonpolar covalent bond?polar covalent bond
because cohesion leads to surface tension of molecules near the surface in H2O...molecules near the surface of H2O form stronger bonds
hydrophillic defdissolves in H2O
hydrophobic def. does not dissolve in H2O
how does H2O dissacoiate into ions?one hydrogen leaves the H2O molecules but leaves its electron behind. This ion turns into H+ and the other ion turns into OH-
pHthe relative amounts of H+ of a solution
is 7 considered a normal pH in the body?no.
bufferhelps prevent pH changes by accepting H+ from excess acid or donating H+ to excess base
plant storage form of sugarstarch
human storage form of suagrglycogen
"blood sugar" immediate source of energy for cellsglucose. monosacharide
part of sugar in milkgalactose. monosacharide
a sugar found in honey and plantsfructose. monosacharide
common table sugarsucrose. disacharide. glucose+fructose
disacharide major sugar in milklactose. glucose+galactose
disacharide product of starch digestionmaltose. glucose+glucose
what is a polysacharide?10 to 100's of monosacharides
what do lipids dissolve in?non polar solvents but not polar solvents (H2O)
4 types of lipidstriglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, and steroids
what type of bonds are used in proteins?peptide bonds
the 3-D shape of a proteinconformation
4 categories of amino acidsnon-polar, polar, charged, and those with special functions
structural proteincollagen
regulatory proteininsulin
contractile proteinsactin and myosin
immunological proteinantibodies
transport proteinhemoglobin
catalytic proteinenzymes ( end in -ase)
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
where are the strongest bonds between two H2O molecules?near the surface of the molecule because there is surface tension there
hydrophillic substances are _____polar
hydrophobic substances are ________nonpolar
(t/f) hydrophillic molecules never can go through H2O based fluids in the bodyfalse. hydrophobic molecules can but they require carrier proteins to escort them through the H2O based fluids of the body
neutral on the pH scaleat 7. H+ and OH- are equal in level
is 7.4 considered to be normal pH in the body?yes.
below 7 on pH scale is considered to beacidic
above 7 on pH scale is considered to bebasic
the pH of various body fluids is a controlled condition related tohomeostasis
if the pH of body fluids deviates from normal, the body fluid may bebuffered
what type of organic compound is a starch?carbohydrate
what type of organic compound is a glycogen?*carbohydrate*
are lipids H2O soluable?no
function of triglyceridsenergy
function of phospholipidsstructural components of cell membranes
function of eicosanoidsregulate physiological processes
function of steroidsregulate physiological processes (just like something else)
stored in subcutaneous adipose tissue and around organs as visceral fattriglycerides
modified triglycerides with two fatty acid groupds and a phosphorus groupphospholipids
non-polar amino acids bind withother non polar amino acids in a watery environment
polar amino acids bind withother polar amino acids and water
charged amino acidscan be positive or negative. can form ionic bonds with amino acids with opposing charges. they are hydrophillic and increase a proteins soluability in H2O
methonine is an example ofan amino acid with a special function
some promote bending and folding of proteinsamino acids with special functions
enzymes areproteins
denaturationa disruption of hydrgoen bonds which changes the shape of proteins and makes them nonfunctional
composed of C,O,N,H,PNucleic acid
monomers of nucleic acidsnucleotides
3 subunits of nucleotidesugar, phosphate and nitrogen-containing base
two primary classes of nucleic acidsDNA and RNA
single-stranded molecule found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cellRNA
memorize

Section 6

Question Answer
composed of three fatty acids attatched to a glyceroltriglyceride
saturdated fatty acidonly single covalent bonds between carbons
unsaturated fatty acidone or more double covalent bondes between carbons
what does MUFA stand for?mono unsaturated fatty acid. has one double bond
what does PUFA stand for?poly unsaturated fatty acid. contains more than one double bond
phospholipids are modified ______triglycerides with two fatty acid group and a phosphorus group
phospholipid bilayers are _____ (polar or nonpolar)amphipathic. They are part polar and part nonpolar
what are cholesterol, estrogen, testostenrone, cortisone, vitamin D, and bile salts an exmaple of?steroids
what are NSAIDS?non-sterodial anti-inflammatory drugs. ex.) asprin and ibeuprophin
contain C,H,O,N, and Sproteins
proteins arepolypeptides of hundreds of amino acids
-NH2 isamino group
COOH iscarboxyl group
increases a protein's soluability in H2Ocharged amino acids
ligandmembrane receptor protein. will bind to a protein receptor on the membrane of cells
denaturation disrupts what kind of bonds in proteins?hydrogen bonds which changes the shape of proteins and makes them nonfunctional
denaturation occurs b/c oftemperature, pH, and salts
cooking an egg is an example of denaturation because of temp
double stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cellDNA
DNAs functiongenetic material for the cell
how does DNA ensure genetic continualityit replicates itself before the cell divides
what does DNA provide instructions for?protein synthesis
sugar of DNAdeoxyribose
the phosphate of DNAalternates with the sugar to form the backbone of DNA molecule
the 4 nitrogenous bases of DNAAdenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine
purines of DNAAdenine and Guanine
pyrminidines of DNAThymine and Cytosine
where are the bases found in DNAproject from the backbone
A bonds with (in DNA)T
C bonds withG
In DNA the purine bonds to a pyrimidine via ________ bondshydrogen
sugar of RNAribose
in RNA, the phosphate groupalternates with the sugar to form the backbone of RNA molecule
4 nitrogenous bases of RNAAdenine, Guanine, Uracil, and Cytosine
memorize

Section 7

Question Answer
the phosphate groups in the phospholipid bilayer are hydrophillic. they make up the head
the fatty acid tails are hydrophobic
what are proteins composed of?the 20 amino acids bounded together with peptide bonds
Dipeptide2 amino acids
Tripeptide3 amino acids
Polypeptidemany amino acids
conformationthe 3-D shape of a protein
what makes up amino acids?an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom attatched to a central carbon atom, and a side chain designated by the symbol R to the same carbon atom as the hydrogen
what is the only part of amino acids that differs among the 20 differnt ones?the "R" group
charged amino acids bind withthey form ionic bonds with amino acids with opposing charges
where do ligands bind with protein receptors?on the membrane of cells
the binding of the ligand and receptor will change the conformation of the protein receptor and triggers response
do receptors bind to any ligand?no they must have an affinity for the ligand in order to bind to it
what kind of bonds do ligands and receptors have?it varies
is the bond between ligand and receptor permanent?almost always reversable
where is RNA found?in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell
3 types of RNAmessanger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA
number of strands in DNA2
number of strands in RNA1
nitrogenous bases in DNATAGC
nitrogenous bases in RNAUAGC
is a carb water soluable?yes
is a lipid water soluable?no
is a protein water soluable?*yes*
is a nucleic acid water soluable?**yes**
memorize