Anatomy Lecture Exam 1 Part 1

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-09-16 04:01

Section 1

Question Answer
6 levels of organizationchemical level, cell level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, and organism level
4 types of tissueepithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve
4 features of anatomical positionstanding straight, facing forward, upper limbs by your side, and palms of hand facing forward
anteriorin front of or toward the front surface
posteriorin back of or toward the back surface
ventralsimilar to anterior, but usually means "belly side"
dorsalsimilar to posterior but usally means "back side"
superiorcloser to the head or structure above another
inferiorcloser to the feet or structure below another
cranialsimilar to superior, but "at head end"
caudalsimilar to inferior but "at tail end"
medialtoward the midline of the body/structure
lateralaway from the midline of the body
deepon the inside or internal to another structure
superficialon the outside or external to another structure
proximalcloser to the point of attatchment as compared to something else
distalfarther from the point of attatchment as compared to something else
Dorsal body cavitiescranial cavity and spinal (vertebral cavity)
ventral body cavitiesthoratic cavity, abdominopelvic, and divided by the diapragm muscle
thoracic cavity subdivisionspleural cavity (lungs), pericardial cavity (heart), and mediastinum
what lines the ventral body cavities?serous membrane
the serous membrane is ________bilayered
what lines the cavity of the ventral body cavities?parietal membrane
covers the organs in the ventral body cavityvisceral membrane
fills the space between the two membranes of the serous membrane?serous fluid
examples that are lined by serous membrane in bodypericardial cavity, pleural cavity, and parietal cavity
3 parts of the serous membraneparietal membrane, visceral membrane, and serous fluid
increases surface area for absorptionmicrovilli
hair like projections that will move in a wave-like fashion in order to move substance a long a surfacecilia

Section 2

Question Answer
homeostasis def. a condition where the internal environment of the body is maintained with in a normal range.
internal environment usally refers to theextracellular fluids of the body (fluid found outside of the cells) including the interstitiual fluid and the plasma
measurable indicators of homeostasis (3)temperature, volume, and chemical content
feedback mechanisms functioncorrect disruptions to homeostasis which are usually routine and moderate
3 components of feedback mechanismsreceptors, association control center, and effector
feedback loops are either ____ or ________positive or negative
Order of tissues in best to worst regenerative capacityepithelial, connective, muscle,nervous
epithelial tissue 4 functionsprotection, selectively permeable (gatekeeper for the passage of molecule), secretion (some produce substances for export), and sensation (nerve endings and sensory receptors imbedded throughout)
how are epithelial tissues arrangedtightly packed cells arranged in continuous sheets
two different types of surfaces of epithelial tissueapical-exposed surface, basal-attatched to basement membrane
what attatched epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue?basement membrane
avascularepithelial tissue is avascular so it has no blood vessels to go through it
rich innervationepithelial tissue is sensitive to touch
high regenerative capacityepithelial tissue can maintain high mitotic capacity (ability to maintain mitosis and repair itself)
the ______ of epithelial tissue dictates their functionstructure
epithelial tissue can be found as:covering (skin), lining (respiratory tract, or glandular (secretory function)
stem cellsimmature and undifferentiated, high mitotic capacity
embryonic stem cellshigh degree of potency (ability to differentiate into a particular cell type)
adult stem cellsless potency than embryonic stem cells
6 functions of connective tissuephysical protection, support and structure, binding of structures, storage, trasnport, and immune protection
matrixground substance and fibers
2 characteristics of connective tissuesfew cells located within large amount of matrix and vascular (has blood coming to it)
3 types of connective tissue protein fiberscollagen, reticular, and elastic

Section 3

Question Answer
what does volume manifest itself as in the body?pressure
what types of volumes are measured in the body?blood pressure, intercoccular pressure
what are some concentrations that are measured in the body?iron in blood, oxygen in blood, cholesterol, etc.
function of receptor in feedback mechanismsmonitors environment and alerts control center when changes in homeostasis occur. Messages sent via sensory nerve
function of association control center of feedback mechanisms receives input from receptors and directs effector to bring about corrective response. Message sent via motor nerve
function of effector in feedback mechanismsreceives output message from control center and produces corrective response
feedback loop:receptor-->sensory neuron-->action control center-->motor nerve-->effector
negative feedback loop(reverse) effector response is to reverse the change detected by the receptors i.e. blood glucose levels
positive feedback loops(enhance) effector response is to enhance the change detected by the receptors i.e. birth
Eastern Cows Moo Noisilyorder of regenerative capacity of 4 types of tissues (epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous)
3 types of apical surfaces of epithelial tissueplain, microvilli (increases surface area for absorption), and cilia (hair like projections that will move in a wave-like fashion in order to move substance a long a surface)
apicalexposed surface
basalattatched to basement membrane
connective tissue for protectionbone, adipose
connective tissue for support and structurebone, cartilage
connective tissue for binding of structuresligaments, tendons
connective tissue for storageadipose stores energy, bone stores minerals
connective tissue for transportblood
connective tissue for immune protectionsome connective tissues contain leukocytes
vascularhas blood coming to it
avascularno blood coming to it
collagenstrong, resistant to pulling
reticularshort and branched (made of collagen)
elasticallows a tissue to stretch and return to origonal length