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Anatomy Lab Exam 4

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hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-04-24 03:53

Section 1

Question Answer
spinal cord rolescontinuation of brain stem, spinal reflex activity, pathway to and from higher centers of brain
2 protective structures of spinal cordvertebral column and meninges
meningesdura mater: superficial, epidural space lies above. arachnoid mater: middle, subdural space lies above. pia mater: deep, subarachnoid space lies above
conus medullaristapered lowered end of spinal cord
filum terminaleextension of pia mater that connects to coccyx
cauda equinabundle of spinal nerves passing through inf portion of vertebral canal
spinal nervesconnect CNS to sensory receptors, muscle, and glands. 31 pairs C8, T12, L5, S5. split into dorsal root and ventral root
dorsal rootsensory information (posterior) dorsal root ganglion: cell bodies of sensory neurons
ventral rootmotor informaiton (anterior)
cervical plexusc1-c5, phrenic nerve: arises from c3 innervated diaphragm, supraclavicular: c3,c4 innervates skin above/below clavicle
brachial plexusc5-c8, t1, supplies shoulders and upper limbs. nerves: axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial
lumbar plexusl1-l4, supplies anteriolateral ab wall, et genitalia, lower part of limbs. nerves: femoral, obturator, lat cutaneous
sacral plexusl4-s4, supplies buttocks, perineum, lower limbs. nerves: sciatic, tibial, deep fibular, superficial fibular
axillary nervedeltoid and teres minor
musculocutaneous nerveant muscles of the arm
radial nervepost arm and forearm
median nerveant muscles of the forearm, some hand muscles
ulnar nerveanteromedial muscles of forearm, most hand muscles, little finger
gray matter is made ofcell bodes
white matter is made of axons
anterior (ventral) ramusmuscles of skin of lat and ventral trunk
posterior (dorsal) ramusdeep muscle and skin of dorsal portion of trunk
femoral nervelargest in lumbar plexus, thigh flexors and extensors
obturator nerveleg adductors, skin over med aspect of thigh
lateral cutaneous nerveskin over lat, ant, and post aspects of thigh
sciatic nervelargest nerve in body, buttock, post skin of thigh, muscles of leg and foot. composed of tibial and common fibular
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
brain stemcontinuation of spinal cord, medulla ob, pons, midbrain
cerebellumsecond largest part of brain, coordinates brain's instructions for skilled repetitive movements, posture, balance
diencephalonthalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
cerebrumlargest part of the brain
differences in cranial meningesdura mater: 2 layers instead of one. arachnoid: no difference. pia mater: forms sheath around bv. no epidural space, continuous with spinal meninges
choroid plexussite of CSF formation
cerebral aqueductconnects third and fourth ventricles
septum pellucidumseparates lat ventricles
central sulcusseparates primary motor cortex from somatosensory cortex, frontal from parietal lobe
lat sulcusseparates frontal from parietal lobe at the temporal bone
longitudinal fissureant to post, divides hemispheres
frontal lobeprimary motor cortex, broca's area: movements required to produce speech
parietal lobeprimary somatosensory cortex, wernicke's area: used to understand speech and use correct words to express yourself
temporal lobeprimary auditory cortex
occipital lobeprimary visual cortex
insulafolded deep within lat sulcus, involed in consciousness including perception, motor control, self awareness
fornixinf to septum pellucidum
corpus callosumjoins cerebral hemispheres
optic chiasmpoint where optic nerves cross
thalamusintegration center for sensory and motor, sensory info processed here before it is relayed to proper cortex
interthalamic adhesionconnects the two thalamic hemispheres
hypothalamuscoordination of voluntary and autonomic funx, homeostasis in sleep, thirst, hunger, body temp, water balance, regulates hormones from pit. gland
mamillary bodiesrelay info from amygdala to hippocampus to thalamus
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
midbraincontains reflex centers that control eye movement, auditory response, pupil size, head movement
ponsalong with medulla, helps regulate breathing
medulla oblongataregulates breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat
superior colliculicoordinates eye movements
inferior colliculiauditory stimuli, startle reflex
olivelarge bulges on post medulla, media to CN Ix, X, Xi
cuneate fasciculusreceives input of sensation from upper limb/trunk
gracile fasciculusreceives input of sensation from lower limb/trunk
medial geniculatesynapse for hearing
lateral geniculatesynapse for vison
basal gangliamasses of gray matter in each cerebral hemisphere. globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus
functions of basal gangliahelp initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, regulate muscle tone
CN Iolfactory, smell
CN IIoptic, vision
CN IIIoculomotor, eye and eyelid movement
CN IVtrochlear, eye movement
CN Vtrigeminal, pain, touch, temp. mastication
CN VIabducens, eye abduction
CN VIIfacial, taste buds. facial expressions
CN VIIIvestibulocochlear, hearing. vestibular: equilibrium. cochlear: hearing
CN IXglossopharyngeal, taste buds. release of saliva
CN Xvagus, variety of sensations propro and stretch. swallowing, vocaliziation
CN XIaccessory, sternocleimastoid and trapezius to coordinate head movements
CN XIIhypoglossal, nerve impulses for speech and swallowing
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
fibrous tunicoutermost, contains sclera and cornea
vascular tunicmiddle, contains choroid, ciliary body, iris, pupil
neural tunic (retina)innermost, pigmented layer: melanin to absorb light and neural layer: photoreceptors
sclerawhite part of eye
corneaant transparent layer of firbous tunic
aqueous humorwatery, anterior to lens
ant segment/cavitycontains aq. humor with 2 chambers ant and post
scleral venous sinushole at junx of conrea and sclera
choroidpost pigmented layer
tapetum lucidumin sheep eye only, irredescent
ciliary bodysup and inf to lens, surrounds, made of ciliary muscle
ora serratalooks serrated, border
irisSM that controls size of pupil
lenstransparent, helps focus light for clear vision, attached to choroid via zonule fibers
post segment/cavitypost to lens, vitreous humor
vitreous humorjelly like
optic nervemedial, crosses at chiasm
macula lutealat to optic disc, directly behind lens
fovea centraliswithin macula lutea, only cones
optic discno rods or cones, axons of ganglia leave here, medial side
lacrimal apparatusgroup of strux that produce tears
lacrimal glandsup and lat aspect of eye, lubricate eye
nasolacrimal ductempties into nasal cavity
lacrimal sacdrains into nasolacrimal sac
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
auriclefunnels sound waves into ear
ext acoustic meatussound waves go to tympanic membrane
tympanic membranesound waves turn into vibrations
helixouter curve/spine of ear
lobule lobe of ear
pharyngotympanic tubeconnects middle ear to nasopharynx
ossiclesmalleus, incus, stapes, amplify and transmit vibration to inner ear
oval windowtransfers vibration of ossicles of eardrum to fluids of the internal ear
cochlearsite of hearing receptors
cochlear ductsoft tube inside cochlea, inside is where nerve impulses occur
organ of cortireceptors that bend (sterocilia)
tectorial membranecovers organ of corti, gelatinous
vestibular membraneroof of cochlear duct
basilar membranefloor of cochlear duct
helicotrematip of apex of cochlea spiral
semicircular canalsant, post, lat, dynamic equilibrium receptors
vesibulesite of static equilibrium receptors
vesibulocochlear nerveCN VIII auditory and equilibrium
memorize

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