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Anatomy Final

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nibbs06's version from 2016-06-14 18:43

Inguinal & Abdominal

Question Answer
Four Surface Landmarks of the Anterolateral WallUmbilicus, Linea Alba, Iliac Crest & Inguinal Ligament
Five Layers of the Anterolateral Wall areskin, subQ (+ 2 layers of fascia. Fatty-Camper & Deep-Scarpa’s), Muscle Layer (3 layers with their aponeurosis + fascia & transversalis fascia), Extraperiotneal Fat & Pareital Peritoneum.
What does the Inguinal Canal contain, in males? & females?spermatic cord(m) & Round Ligament(f)
Deep ring of inguinal canal is formed in thetransversalis fascia
The cremaster muscle isthe muscle layer of the inguinal canal. It comes from the internal oblique muscle
The superficial rings aponeurosis comes from theaponeurosis of the external oblique muscle.
The external spermatic fascia is formed from theexternal oblique aponeurosis (superficial ring)
Hasselbach’s Triangle is bordered byRectus Abdominus, Inferior Epigastric Artery/Vein & Inguinal Ligament
A hernia that lies medial to inferior epigastric artery is aDirect Inguinal Hernia (@superficial ring in triangle)
A hernia that is lateral to the inferior epigastric artery is aIndirect Inguinal Hernia (Deep ring to superficial)
A femoral hernia isperitoneal protrusion (w/ or w/out abdopelvic contents) thru the Femoral Canal
The Arcuate ligaments (med/lat) are formed fromfascia of Psoas & Quadratus Lumborum
Anterior rectus sheath above Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of Ext. Oblique & Anterior layer of Int. Oblique
Anterior rectus sheath below Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of the Ext Oblique, ALL Layers of Internal Oblique & Transverses Abdomens
Posterior rectus sheath above Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of Int. Oblique (post layers) & Transversus abdominis, & transversalis fascia
Posterior rectus sheath below Arcuate line istransversalis fascia
The peritoneal cavity is subdivided into thegreater sac & the omental bursa (lesser sac)
The Omental Foramen isAn opening where the Omental Bursa (lesser sac) is continuous with the Greater Sac
The omenta consists of two layers of peritoneum called theGreater Omentum & Lesser Omentum
The greater omentum is attached @greater curvature (stomach) + 1st part of the duodenum, it hangs over the transverse colon & the jejunum/ileum coils
The lesser omentum is attached @lesser curvature (stomach), 1st part of duodenum & goes to the inferior surface of the liver
The greater & lesser omentum are derived fromdorsal(g) & ventral(l) mesentery's
Mesenteries areperitoneal folds that attach viscera to the posterior abdominal wall
The jejunum & ileum are connected to the posterior abdominal wall by theMesentery Proper
Transverse Mesocolon connects thetransverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall
Sigmoidal Mesocolon connects thesigmoidal colon to the abdominal wall
The left kidney is connected to the spleen via thesplenorenal ligament
The stomach is connected to the diaphragm via thegastrophrenic ligament
The iliopsoas muscle isthe strongest hip flexor; made of exiting iliac & Psoas major muscles, attaching to medial femur
memorize
Is the Psoas minor a hip flexor muscle? No, it ends @ pelvis

Kidney & Bladder

Question Answer
Which kidney sits lower than the other?Right
The artery, vein & ureter enter the kidney at therenal sinus
Each renal pyramid is separated by arenal column
Each renal pyramid ends at a round point called therenal papilla (where the papillary duct aka duct of Bellini is found)
Major calyces come together to form the urine collecting site, therenal pelvis
From the major calyx, urine goes to therenal pelvis → ureter → bladder → urethra
Which nephrons concentrate urine? & Where are they?Juxtamedullary – they sit in the inner 1/3 of the cortex
The renal corpuscle is made up ofthe glomerulus & glomerular capsule (bowman’s capsule)
Collecting ducts of each renal pyramid converge to form theduct of Bellini (papillary duct)
What duct empties into a minor renal calyx?Duct of Bellini (renal papilla)
Afferent Arterioles are arteries branched off ofInterlobular Arteries
Blood leaves the Peritubular capillaries through theinterlobular veins → Arcuate veins → Interlobar veins
The Renal vein is formed by theInterlobar vein
Ureters empty urine into the bladder via theUreteric Ostia
Which side of the bladder is covered by peritoneum?Only the superior surface
The bladder wall muscle is called theDetrusor Muscle
Involuntary opening of the urethral sphincter is controlled by thestretch receptors of the detrusor muscles
3 sections of the male urethra areProstatic, Membranous & Penile/Spongy Urethra
Urination reflex involves which ANS system?Parasympathetic
Reflex distention of the bladder activates stretch receptors which travel to the micturition center of the spinal chord (S2-S4) activating theparasympathetic motor neurons of the detrusor muscle causing contraction of the detrusor muscles, which will relax the internal urethral sphincter, causing a decrease in somatic signals, & thus relaxing the external urinary sphincter
In voluntary micturition, the stretch receptors send info to thepons & cerebellum, which override the reflex
memorize

Lumbar Plexus

Question Answer
The lumbar plexus is made up ofventral rami of spinal nerves L1 – L4(Not L5)
The 6 nerve branches of the lumbar plexus areiliohypogastric, Ilioinguinal, Genitofemoral, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous, Obturator & Femoral Nerve
The ventral rami of the lumbar plexus (L2-L4) give us (2 Nerves)Obturator & Femoral Nerve
Anterior Ramus of L1 will formIliohypogastric & Ilioinguinal Nerves
Anterior Rami of L1 & L2 will converge to formGenitofemoral Nerve
Anterior Rami of L2 & L 3 will converge to formLateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
The Sacral Plexus is formed fromventral rami of L4, L5 & S1-S4
2 components of the sciatic nerve arecommon fibular part(dorsal division) & tibial part(ventral)
The femoral nerve extends more _________ than the obturator nerveLaterally
memorize

Stomach/Intestines

Question Answer
The foregut blood supply comes from theCeliac Trunk (stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen)
The Superior Mesenteric Artery supplies blood from theAfter the duodenal papilla to the end of the first 2/3 of the transverse colon
The Inferior Mesenteric Artery supplies blood from thehindgut through the upper anal canal
Blood supply from the small intestine through 2/3 of the transverse colon, comes fromSuperior Mesenteric Artery
Jejuneal & Ileal Arteries are unique in that theyloop (anastomose) in “arcades”
Straight arteries are arteries thatextend from arcades to the small intestine
From the liver, blood returns to the inferior vena cava viaHepatic Veins
The 4 tunic layers of the GI tract are (most inner to outer)Tunica Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis & Adventitia/Serosa.
Tunica mucosa is made up of 3 protective layersepithelium, lamina propria & muscularis mucosae
What layer will we find the Meissner’s Plexus?Submucosa layer
The foregut is fromthe oral cavity to the duodenal papilla
The midgut region is fromthe entryway of the bile duct into the duodenum, to the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon
The hind gut region is fromthe distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, to the pectinate line of the anal canal
The tongue muscle is innervated byHypoglossal Nerve (CN-12)
The anterior 2/3 of the tongue is innervated byCN-V3 (general sensations – touch & temp.) & CN-7 (taste)
The posterior 1/3 of the tongue is innervatedonly by CN-9, for gen. sensations (touch & temp.) & taste!
The posterior tongue lies within theoropharynx
The palates separate the oral cavity from thenasal cavity & the nasopharynx
The largest salivary gland is innervated byCN-9 (glossopharyngeal)The Parotid Gland
The submandibular/submaxillary gland is innervated byCN-7 (Facial Nerve)
The sublingual gland is innervated byCN-7 (Facial Nerve)
The dilated superior part of the stomach (related to the left dome of the diaphragm) is theFundus
The superior “dip”/notch in the stomach, is called theCardiac Notch
The body of the stomach lies between thefundus & pyloric antrum
The pyloric antrum isthe widened funnel shaped area that leads into the pyloric canal (narrow part)
The thickned distal region of the pyloric canal forms thePyloric Sphincter, which controls discharge of stomach contents through the pyloric orifice into the duodenum
The concave border of the stomach is called theLesser Curvature
The convex border of the stomach is called theGreater Curvature
Plicae Circulares areshelf-like folds that are formed from modified version of the mucosa & Submucosa.
The shortest, widest & most fixed part of the small intestine is theDuodenum
The duodenum is covered bymesentery for the first 2cm of the superior part & the remaining superior part plus the next two parts are retroperitoneal, where the final limb where it joins the jejunum & becomes intraperitoneal again.
The MAJOR DUODENAL PAPILLA iswhere the pancreatic duct & the common bile duct empty bile & enzymes into their long duodenum; it also marks the end of the foregut!
The part of the large intestine in the lower right quadrant, which has the appendix, is theCecum
The ascending colon runs from the cecum to the right lobe of the liver, where it then becomes theRight Colic Flexure, or Hepatic Flexure
The Right Colic/Hepatic Flexure is separated from the anterior abdominal wall by theGreater Omentum
The Transverse colon runs across the abdomen & through the left colic flexure, then becoming theDescending Colon.
The descending colon is (peritoneal location)retroperitoneal
The descending colon & the rectum are linked by thesigmoid colon
The anal canal ends at thePectinate Line
memorize

Liver, Gall Bladder & Spleen

Question Answer
The 4 lobes of the liver areright, left, quadrate & caudate
The Right side of the liver is separated from the left side by thefalciform ligament
The transverse fissure of the liver that contains the portal triad of vessels is called thePorta Hepatis
The portal triad is made up of theHepatic Portal Vein, Hepatic Artery & Hepatic Duct
The majority of the livers venous blood supply comes from theHepatic portal vein
The output blood flow of the liver, occurs via theHepatic Vein (not the hepatic portal vein)
What vessel supplies the liver? & what is it a branch of?Hepatic Artery. It’s a branch of the Celiac Trunk
At the Gall Bladder, the hepatic duct merges with the cystic duct to form theCommon Bile Duct
The Gall Bladder receives bile from theCommon Hepatic Duct
The Gall Bladder secretes the bile via theCystic Duct
From the Gall Bladder to the intestine, the pathway of bile iscystic duct --> common bile duct --> hepatopancreatic ampulla --> hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi) --> duodenal papilla
Which part of the pancreas is responsible for its endocrine & exocrine functions?The tail
The hepatopancreatic ampulla isthe result of the pancreatic duct, merging with the bile duct
The sphincter of Oddi, is also known as thehepatopancreatic sphincter
The sphincter of Oddi is closed duringperiods between digestion; bile is filling the gall bladder up
The sphincter of Oddi opens into theMajor Duodenal Papilla in the descending duodenum
The ligaments of the spleen are called thesplenorenal ligament & the gastrosplenic ligament
The spleen is attached to the left kidney, via theSplenorenal ligament
The spleen is attached to the stomach, via theGastrosplenic ligament
3 splenic functions aremake lymph & plasma cells, find antigen-antibody complexes & removes old RBC’s
Splenic blood supply starts from the descending aorta →Celiac Trunk → Splenic Artery → Splenic Vein → Inferior Mesenteric Vein → Superior Mesenteric Vein → Portal Vein
memorize

Pelvis

Question Answer
The right and left hip bones are developed from the fusion of 3 bones, they arethe Ilium, Ischium & Pubis.
The superior fan-shaped part of the hip bone is theIlium.
The socket for the femur is called theacetabulum
What is the rim of the fan called?Iliac Crest
The 2 curves of the “fans rims” are called theASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) & PSIS (Posterior Superior Iliac Spine).
The ilium articulates with the sacrum at thesacro-ilac joint, where it has an auricular surface & an Iliac Tuberosity.
The ischium forms part of the Obturator foramen via itsramus (also called the ischio-pubic ramus).
The posterioinferior protuberance of the ischium is called theischial tuberosity
The ridge along the superior rams of the pubis is, which runs laterally from the tubercle, is calledthe pectin pubis.
The fused inferior rami of the pubis and ischium (R & L) meet at the ventral medial line at aPubic Symphysis to form a Pubic Arch.
The 2 ligaments of the pelvic wall are theSacrospinous (smaller) & Sacrotuberous (superficial) Ligaments.
Which pelvic ligament has a lateral attachment at the ischial tuberosity?Sacrotuberous Ligament.
What foramen is in between the sacrospinous (inferior to) & sacrotuberous ligaments?lesser sciatic
Which foramen is superior the sacrospinous ligament?Greater Sciatic
What divides the greater sciatic foramen into 2 parts?Piriformis
What passes above the Piriformis in the greater sciatic foramen?Superior gluteal nerves, arteries & veins
What passes below the Piriformis in the greater sciatic foramen?Inferior gluteal nerves + vessels, sciatic nerve, pudendal nerve, the internal pudendal vessels, posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, and the nerves to the Obturator internus, quadratus femorus and superior + inferior gemellus muscles.
What nerve exits from the lesser sciatic foramen?pudendal nerve (but it goes back into perineum)
Actions of the Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus muscles areextension & lateral rotation of the thigh.
Besides the gluteus max, med, min, all other gluteal muscles aid inabduction & lateral rotation of the thigh.
memorize

Lower Limb

Question Answer
The lining of the acetabulum is called theLabrum
What tuberosity is found on the posterior side of the femur?Gluteal Tuberosity.
The distal end of the femur is made up oflateral & medial condyles, lateral & medial epicondyles, adductor tubercle and intercondylar fossa (posterior) & patellar surface (anterior).
What is the lateral and medial bones of the leg?Tibia (medial) & Fibula (lateral)
Which leg bone is not apart of the knee joint?the fibula
Which cruciate ligament is the weakest?ACL
The ACL originates & inserts on theoriginates on the intercondyler notch of the femur & inserts on posterior side of the notch.
The patella sits over thefemurotibial joint
The fat filled compartment of the leg that contains arteries, veins, nerves & lymph is thePopliteal Fossa
The 7 tarsal bones areCalcaneous, Talus, Navicular, Cuboid & 3 Cuneiforms.
Metatarsal 4 & 5 articulate with theCuboid.
memorize