Anatomy Exam 1

anskorczewski12's version from 2016-06-21 23:49

Muscle Innervations

Question Answer
Trapeziusspinal accessory nerve & C3/C4 spinal nerves
Levator Scapulaedorsal scapular (C4,C5) and cervical (C3, C4) nerves
Latissimus dorsithoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
Rhomboiddorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)
Deltoidaxillary nerve (C5, C6)
supraspinatussuprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
Infraspinatussuprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
Teres Minoraxillary nerve (C5, C6)
Subscapularisupper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6, C7)
Teres Majorlower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Splenius posterior rami of spinal nerves
Erector Spinaeposterior rami of spinal nerves
pectoralis majorlateral and medial pectoral nerves
pectoralis minormedial pectoral nerve
subclaviusnerve to subclavius
serratus anteriorlong thoracic nerve
pronator teresmedian nerve
flexor carpi radialismedian nerve
palmaris longusmedian nerve
flexor carpi ulnarisulnar nerve
flexor digitorum superficialismedian nerve
flexor digitorum profundusulnar nerve
flexor pollicis longusanterior interosseous nerve, from median nerve
pronator quadratusanterior interosseous nerve, from median nerve

Movements and planes

Question Answer
medianthe vertical plane dividing left and right
sagittal planevertical plane parallel to median plane
frontal/coronal planevertical planes dividing front and back of body
transverse planehorizontal planes dividing top and bottom
dorsumsuperior aspect of part that protrudes anteriorly (tongue, nose, foot, hand)
dorsiflexionpulling toes up toward body
plantarflexionpointing toes down
circumductioncircular movement that involves sequential flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction (distal end moves in circle)
eversionmoves sole of foot away from median plane (towards pinky toes)
inversionmoves sole of foot toward median plane (towards big toe)
oppositionmovement by which the pad of the 1st digit is brought to another digit pad
repositionmovements of 1st digit from the position of opposition back to anatomical position
protrusionmovement anteriorly (mandible, lips, tongue)
retrusionmovement posteriorly (mandible, lips, tongue)


Question Answer
intercarpal (IC) jointsconnect carpal bones, synovial
metacarpal phalanx jointconnect carpal and proximal phalanx
carpometacarpal (CMC) jointconnect distal carpals row with base of metacarpals (most are plane synovial, except thumb which is saddle synovial)
intermetacarpal (IM) jointconnect adjacent metacarpals
proximal interphalangeal (PIP) jointconnect proximal and middle phalanges
distal interphalangeal (DIP) jointconnect the middle and distal phalanges
midcarpal jointconnect the distal and proximal row of carpals
radio-ulnar joint (distal and proximal)connect the radius and ulna
scapulathoracic jointnon-true (not synovial) joint connecting the subscapular fossa to the posterior surface of the ribs
acromioclavicular (AC) jointconnects acromion of scapula to acromial end of the clavicle (synovial)
sternoclavicular (SC) jointconnects the sternum to the sternal end of the clavicle (synovial)
glenohumeral (GH) jointconnects glenoid cavity of scapula to the humeral head (synovial)

Extra Terms

Question Answer
synovial jointsbones joined by a joint capsule (with serous synovial membrane and fibrous layer, has joint cavity filled with synovial fluid, and articular cartilage covers bone)
thoracodorsal nerveinnervates latissimus dorsi, passes inferior along posterior wall of axilla, enters medial surface of lat., vulnerable during inferior axilla surgery, mastectomies, surgery of scapular lymph nodes, paralysis means unable to climb or use crutches
dorsal scapular nerveinnervates rhomboids (and Levator scapulae), when injured, scapula becomes more lateral
connect the radius and ulna together interosseous membrane
curves of the spinecervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis
scapulohumeral rhythm1:2 (15 degrees movement from scapula means 30 degrees movement from humerus, which is 45 degrees)
walls of axilla(posterior) scapula, subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi (lateral) bicipital groove of humerus (apex) 1st rib, clavicle, superior edge of scapula (medial) thoracic wall, overlying serratus anterior (base) concave of skin, subcutaneous tissue (anterior) pectoralis major and minor
cubital fossadepression on anterior aspect of the elbow
upper cross syndrometightness of the upper trapezius and levator scapula on the dorsal side crosses with tightness of the pectoralis major and minor; weak cervical flexors and lower trapezius; leads to imbalance of forces and joint disfunctions
Erb's palsyparalysis of arm due to damage to brachial plexus (injury may be from birth and stretching nerves); shows waiters' tip-internal rotation and flexed hand, and atrophy of deltoid and biceps muscles
subluxationa partial dislocation followed by relocation; ligaments may be stretched (common for radial head from pulling on child's arm and GH joint)
carrying angleangle caused by trochlea not being square to humerus (10-15 for men and more than 15 for women)
GH labruminside lining of the joint
claw handtriangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)
triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)the articular disc found between the ulna and carpal bones and the ligaments that attach to the disc (many surgical repairs)

Section 2