Anatomy Ch. 16, Nervous Tissue

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-04-20 03:30


Question Answer
central nervous system controlsbrain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system hasSNS, ENS, ANS, SyNS, PSNS
somatic nervous system SNS controlsskeletal muscles
enteric nervous system ENS controlsGI tract
autonomic nervous system ANS controlscardiac and smooth muscle that isn't associated with the ENS (GI tract)
sympathetic nervous system SyNSfight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system PSNSrest and digest
nerves in PNSbundles of axons and CT, BVs, 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves
ganglia in PNSoutside the brain and spinal cord, masses of nervous tissue - primarily cell bodies
enteric plexuses in PNSneuron networks, help regulate digestive system
receptors in PNSparts of neurons or specialized cells, monitor changes in int/ext environments
3 functions of the nervous system1. sensory function: sense change in int/ext environments (afferent sensory neurons) 2. integrative function: analyze sensory info, make decisions regarding behaviors (association interneurons) 3. motor functions: respond to stimuli by initiating action (efferent motor neurons)
histology of a neuronfunctional unit of nervous system, excitable (produce APs), cell body w/single nucleus, dendrites receive info, axons take info away
axonstake info away, @ base of axon is axon hillock, one or more axon terminals, covered in myelin sheath
multipolar neuronlooks like normal neuron
bipolar neuronaxon terminals at both ends, cell body in center
unipolar neuroncell body to the side of axon, has peripheral process on top and central process on bottom
what are the 2 special neurons?purkinje cell in cerebellum, pyramidal cell in cerebral cortex
sensory afferent neuronaway from stimulus
interneuronneuron to neuron, in CNS
motor efferent neuronto the effector
neurogliasupporting cells, 5-20x more than neurons, no APs, can grow and divide
neuroglia in CNSastrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
neurolglia in PNSschwann cells, satellite cells
astrocytesprotoplasmic astrocytes: gray matter short branched. fibrous astrocytes: white matter, long unbranched. functions: support, form blood brain barrier, regulate brain devel. in embryo, maintain proper chem envir for APs, influence formation of synapses among neurons
oligodendrocytes and schwann cellssmaller, less processes than atrocytes, form and maintain myelin sheath. CNS: oligoden. PNS: schwann
myelinated axons in PNSschwann cells wrap around axons in PNS during fetal development, schwann cell cytoplasm and nucleus for outer layer: neurolemma w/ inner portion being myelin sheath
myelinated axons in CNSprocesses of oligodendrocytes wrap around axons, can myelinate several axons, regeneration of axons limited
microgliasmall, phagocytic cells, remove cell debris, microbes, damaged tissue
ependymal cells cuboidal to columnar cells, microvilli and cilia. line brain ventricles and central canal of spinal cord. functions: produce CSF, help form blood CSF barrier, circulate CSF
satelite cellsflat cells, surround cell bodies of neurons in PNS ganglia, provide support and regulate exchange of materials
gray v white matterwhite: mostly myelinated axons. gray: cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, dendrites, neurolgia