Anatomy, Ch. 14, BV

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-03-19 03:48

Section 1

Question Answer
3 layers of a blood vessel walltunica interna, tunica media, tunica externa
describe the tunica internaendothelium: innermost layer, contact with blood. basement membrane: outside endo. support for inner layer. internal elastic lamina: thin sheet elastic fibers, facilitate diffusion
describe the tunica mediamuscular and CT layer, SM regulates diameter or lumen. aids in hemostasis. external elastic lamina: elastic fibers that allow vessels to stretch and recoil
vasoconstrictiondecrease in diameter
vasodilationincrease in diameter
describe the tunica externaoutermost layer, collagen and elastic fibers. nerves and small vessels(vasa vasorum) that supply vessel walls. anchor BV to surrounding tissues
elastic arterieslargest arteries in body. VW: well defined int. and ext. elastic lamina, thick tunica media. FX: propel blood forward while ventricles are relaxing. EX: aorta
muscular arteriesmedium sized arteries. VW: more SM, well defined int. elastic lamina, think ext. thick tunica externa. FX: maintain vessel pressure and efficient blood flow.
anastomosesunion of two or more arteries supplying same body region. collateral circulation.
arteriolesregulate flow of blood into capillary bed. VW: thin tunica interna, porous int. elastic lamina. regulate resistance
metarterioleterminal end of arteriole
precapillary sphincter regulate flow of a capillary
capillariessmallest BV, connect arterial and venous flow. VW: lack tunica media and externa. FX: exchange substances between interstial fluid and blood
capillary bednetwork of 10-100 capillaries that come from single metarteriole
flow from arteriole to venule (2 ways)capillaries: arteriole, capillaries, venule (precapillary sphincters relaxed). thoroughfare channel: direct route from arteriole to venule (precapillary sphincters contracted)
continuous capillaryPM forms continuous tube only interupted by intercellular clefts. lungs, CNS, muscle
fenestrated capillariesPM have many fenestrations. kidneys, choroid plexuses, endocrine glands.
sinusoidswider more winding that others, incomplete or no basement membrane, large fenestrations and intercellular clefts. liver, spleen, red bone marrow
portal systemblood flows from one capillary network to another via portal vein. EX: hepatic portal system

Section 2

Question Answer
venulesthin walls. postcapillary venules: inistially receive blood from capillaries, smallest venules. muscular venules: 1-2 layers SM. reservoirs for blood
veinsVW: thin tunica interna and media, thick tunica externa. larger lumen. contain valves: venous return by preventing backflow.
vascular sinusvein with think endothelial wall and no SM. EX: coronary sinus
anastomotic veinsconnections between paired veins
superficial veinsfound in subQ layer, no accompanying artery
deep veinstravel between skeletal muscle, connect with superficial veins
varicose veinscongenital or due to mechanical stress. common in lower limbs, esophagus and anal canal. caused by leaky venous valves: allow backflow to superficial veins
blood distribution64% of blood volume is in veins and venules at rest. function as blood reservoirs, used during times of need
circulatory routessystemic circulation: all vessels involved in transporting oxygenated blood from L ventr. to capillaries and deoxygenated blood from capillaries to R atrium. pulmonary circulation: R ventr. to lungs to L atrium
aorta and its brancheslargest artery in the body. ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta
ascending aortasupplies R and L coronary arteries
aortic arch ABCSascending aorta, brachiocephalic trunk (R common carotid, R subclavian), L common carotid artery, L subclavian artery
head and neck arteriesR & L common carotid, ext carotid (pulse point), int. carotid (branches to form circle of willis). vertebral
upper limb arteriesaxillary, brachial, radial, ulnar
thoracic aortaparietal branches: thoracic wall, spinal meninges, diaphragm. visceral branches: pericardium, bronchi, esophagus
abdominal aortaceliac trunk: common hepatic, L gastric, splenic. superior mesenteric, renal, gonadal, inf mesenteric, common iliac: int. and ext
superior mesenteric artery small intestine, parts of colon, pancreas
renal arterykidneys
gonadal arteryovaries, testes
inf mesentaric arteryparts of colon, rectum
common iliac arteryext: lower limbs. int: uterus, prostate, urinary bladder

Section 3

Question Answer
lower limb arteriescommon iliac: int. and ext. femoral, popliteal, ant tibial: dorsalis pedis. post tibial: fibular
systemic veinscoronary sinus: heart, sup vena cava: head, neck, upper limbs, thorax, inf vena vava: abdomen, pelvis, lower limbs
head and neck veinsbrachiocephalic: brain, meninges, muscles, tissues of face, neck. internal jugular branches into: sup sagittal sinus, straight sinus, sigmoid sinus, inf sagital sinus, transverse sinus. subclavian: scalp and skin, muscles of head and neck, ext. jugular
upper limb veinsdeep: subclavian (used for central lines), axillary, brachial. superficial: cephalic, basilic (median cubital used for blood draw)
thoracic veinsbrachiocephalic, azygous, hemiaxygous
abdominal and pelvic veinshepatic portal receives blood from: splenic, sup mesenteric, inf mesenteric, gastic. hepatic: receives blood from helpatic portal vein, drains into IVC. gonadal, renal, common iliac, int & ext
lower limb veinsdeep veins: femoral, popliteal, post tibial. superficial veins: great saphenous (longest vein in body)
pulmonary circulation pulmonary trunk, deoxygenated blood. pulmonary arteries, deoxygenated blood, pulmonary veins oxygenated blood
fetal circulationbypasses lungs and liver. foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, umbilical artery and vein