Anatomy, Ch. 13, Heart

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-03-17 08:47

Section 1

Question Answer
located in the mediastinum
apextip of l vent
baseopposite base, post. surface
heart surface, anteriordeep to sternum and ribs
heart surface, inferiorbetween apex and right surface
heart surface, rightfaces right lung
heart surface, leftfaces left lung
pericardiummembrane that surrounds and protects heart, confines but allows free movement
main parts of pericardiumfibrous pericardium and serous pericardium
fibrous pericardium tough, inelastic membrane. prevents overstretching, protects heart, anchors it to medastinum
serous pericardiymthinner, more delicate membrane. parietal layer fused to fibrous pericardium, visceral layer epicardium adheres to surface of heart
pericardial fluidreduces friction
pericarditis results inpericardiosyntesis surgery to remove fluid
layers of heart wallepicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardiumdual layered, visceral layer binds to serous pericardium(epicardium) and adipose/fibroelastic layer
myocardium95% of heart wall, muscle cells arranged in budles that swirl diagonally
endocardiumthin layer lining the heart chambers and covering valves, reduces friction
atriasmaller superior chambers, auricle: pouch like structure
ventricleslarge inferior chambers
sulcicoronary sulcus: boundary between atria and vent. anterior interventricular sulcus: anterior boundary between ventricles. posterior interventricular sulcus: posterior boundary between ventricles
right atriumreceives blood from superior vena cava: (arms, head, neck), inferior vena cava (below diaphragm), coronary sinus (from heart). post. wall is smooth, ant. wall rough ridges called pectinate muscles. tricuspid valve
fossa ovalisremnant of foramen ovale
right ventricleridges on int. surface trabeculae carneae, chordae tendinease: cords that attach to valve cusps via pap. muscles. pulmonary semilunar valve: push blood from r vent. to vessels
left atriumreveives blood from pulmonary veins, smooth ant. and post. wall. bicuspid valve
left ventriclethickest heart chamber, forms apex of heart. contains chordae tendineae and pap muscles. aortic semilunar valve, ligamentum arteriosus connects aortic arch to pulmonary trunk
what seperates the right and left ventricles?interventricular septum

Section 2

Question Answer
myocardium thicknessatria have thinner walls bc blood only goes to ventricles, ventricles have thicker walls bc blood goes to parts of body
fibrous skeleton, 3 functionsdense CT, encircle the valves and merges with interventric. septum. 1. prevents overstretching of valves 2. attachment point for muscles 3. insulates electrical activity of heart
atrioventricular valveswhen open, cusps protrude into ventricles, blood flows from atria to vent. close prior to vent. contraction bc of pressure
semilunar valvesbetween ventricles and great vessels, cusps shaped like crescent moons, open when pressure in vent. rises ejection of blood, close as pressure falls
pulmonary circuit def.right side of heart, receives blood from systemic circulation, sends blood to lungs to become oxygenated
systemic circuit def.actual left side of heart, receives blood from lungs, sends oxygenated blood to tissues
pulmonary circuit completeR atrium, tricuspid valve, r ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, l atrium
systemic circuit completeL atrium, bicuspid valve, l ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, body, inferior/superior vena cava, r atrium
anastomosesprovide alternate routes or collateral circuits
coronary arteriesascending aorta to left right coronary artery. left coronary: anterior interventricular branch and circumflex branch. right coronary: posterior interventricular branch and marginal branch
angioplastyprocedure using a catheter to unblock a coronary artery
coronary veinsmajority drain to sinus. great cardiac vein: ventricles and L atrium. middle cardiac vein: post. of ventricle. small cardiac vein: r atrium and ventricle. anterior cardiac veins: r vent. directly into r atrium
sinoatrial SA noderight atrium, inf.lateral to SVC opening, pacemaker
atrioventricular AV nodeinteratrial septum, electrical impulse delayed
conduction systemSA impulse -> internodal tracts, to both atria and bachmann's bundle. AV bundle -> electical signals from atria to ventricles to bundle branches down interventricular septum to purkinje fibers the spread up ventricle walls
cardiac cycle1. atria in systole, ventricles diastole 2. ventricles systole, atria diastole 3. both in diastole
foramen ovale hole between l and r atria, becomes fossa ovalis after birth
ductus arteriosusconnects pulmonary artery to descending aorta, becomes ligamentum arteriosum after birth

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