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Anatomy, Ch. 12, Blood

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hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-03-17 07:17

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Question Answer
3 functions of blood1. transportation: gases, nutrients 2. regulation: pH, body temp 3. protection: clotting, WBC
components of blood55% plasma: 91.5% water, 8.5% solutes, plasma proteins, serum. 45% formed elements: erythrocytes RBC, buffy coat of leukocytes and platelents
blood cell formationhematopoiesis. RBC & platelets: regulated by neg. feedback. WBC: response to pathogens. red bone marrow: primary site, pluipotent stem cells
stem cells in bone marrow do what?reproduce themselves, proliferate, differentiate. cells enter cardio sys via sinuses
pluripotent stem cells produce what two types of cells?myeloid stem cells: RBS, platelets, WBC. lymphoid stem cells: lymphocytes
differentiation and proliferation of blood cell formation is regulated byhematopoietic growth factors. erythropoietin:RBC thrombopoietin: platelets
basic blood cell formation from start to finishpluripotent stem cell -> stem cell (myeloid or lymphoid) -> precursor cell -> formed element
myeloblastneutrophil
eosinophilic myeloblasteosinophils, precursor cells derived from stem cells
basophilic myeloblastbasophils
proerythroblast RBC
megakaryocyteplatelets
monoblastmonocytes
lymphoblastlymphocytes
red blood cellscontain hemoglobin, biconcave disc, strong flexible PM, glycolipids in PM, anucleate, no mitochondira
hemoglobin4 polypeptide chains, 2 a 2 b, heme: pigment in each chain iron in center of each heme binds o2
reticulocytesfresh RBC high # means recent blood loss
RBC life cycle120 days, old cells removed from circulation and destroyed by phagocytic cell in spleen and liver
WBC nucleated, granular leukocytes: 12 hrs-3dys, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. agranular leukocytes: 100-300 dys, monocytes, lymphocytes
neutrophilsmultilobed nucleus, low affinity to hematoxylin and eosin, light purple, high number during bacterial infection
eosinophilsbilobed nucleus, high affinity for eosin, pink. present in parasitic infections
basophilshighly grandular, bilobed nucleus, high affinity for hematoxylin, dark purple. involved in inflammatory response and allergies
lymphocytesT cells, B cells, Natural killer cells NK
T cellscell mediated immunity
B cellsanitbody immunity
NK cellsattack a wide variety of infection microbes and tumor cells
monocytesvery large, horseshoe shaped nucleus, phagocytosis, transform to macrophages outside BV
list WBC found in blood from most to leastneutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
plateletsAKA thrombocytes, fragments of megakaryocyte, help stop blood loss by clotting, 5-9dys
sickle cell anemianormal shaped cells until hypoxic event/environment, defective hemoglobin
hypochromic erythrocyteslow color in center due to lack of iron
normoblastdevelopmental stage of RBC, nucelated, usually seen in bone marrow disorder/cancer
target cellscells in anemia, resemble a target in coloration
memorize

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