Anatomy Body Planes and Sections

sazejedi's version from 2016-11-04 03:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Plane (definition)Body planes are sagittal, frontal and transverse planes which lie at right angles to one another. A section bears the names of the plane along which it is cut. Thus a cust along a sagittal plane produces a sagittal section.
Frontal (coronal) planeDivides the body into anterior and posterior parts;
Transverse (horizontal) plane (also known as a cross section)Runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Sagittal and medial body planesDivides the body into right and left parts and are vertical
Midsagittal (aka median plane) PlaneSagittal plane that lies on the midline;
Parasagittal PlanesAll other sagittal planes offset from the midline
Oblique Section PlanesCuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical; oblique sections are seldom used
Orientation and Directional Terms (Chapter 1, page 8)
Superior (cranial) Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; ABOVE /the head is superior to the abdomen
Inferior (caudal)Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; BELOW /The navel is inferior to the chin
Anterior (ventral)Toward or at the front of the body; IN FRONT OF / The breastbone is anterior to the spine
Posterior (dorsal)Toward or at the back of the body; BEHIND / The heart is posterior to the breastbone
MedialToward or at the midline of the body; on the INNER SIDE OF / the heart is medial to the arm
LateralAway from the midline of the body; on the OUTER SIDE OF / The arms are lateral to the chest
ProximalCloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk; /the elbow is proximal to the wrist
DistalFarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk; The elbow is proximal to the wrist
Superficial (external)Toward or at the body surface; / The skin is superficial to the skeltal muscles
Deep (internal)The lungs are deep to the skin
IpsilateralOn the same side; / The right hand and right foot are ipsilateral
ContralateralOn opposite sides/ The right hand and left foot are contralateral

Section 2

Question Answer
VertebratesHumans belong to this group; includes cats, rats, birds, lizards, frogs and fish
Vertebrates share the following basic features:Tube within a tube body plan, Bilateral Symmetry, Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord, Notochord and Vertebrae, Segmentation, Pharyngeal Pouches
Tube-within-a-Tube body plan definition:INNER TUBE: extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the respiratory and digestive organs
OUTER TUBE Consists of the axial skeleton and associated axial muscles that make up the outer body wall & nervous structures
Bilateral Symmetry definition:The left half of the body is essentially a mirror image of the right half/ Body structures such as the eyes, ovaries right and left hands
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord DefinitionAll vertebrae embryos have a hollow nerve cord running along their back in the median plane. This cord developes into the brain and spinal cord
Notochord and Vertebrae definitions
Question Answer
Notochord Definitionis a stiffening rod in the back just deep in to the spinal cord
VertebraeThe boney pieces of the vertebral column or backbone
SegmentationThe OUTER TUBE of the body shows evidence of segmentation.
SegmentsRepeating units of similiar structure that run from the head along the full lenghth of the trunk. In humans the ribs and the muscles between the rids are an exp of segmentation.
Pharyngeal Pouches definitionIn the embryonic stage, the human pharynx has a set of outpocketings called pharyngeal pouches that correspond to the clefts between the gills of fish. Such pouches give rise to some structures in the head and neck. And example is the middle ear cavity which runs from the eardrum to the pharynx.