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Anatomy and Physiology

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abisnail's version from 2017-05-22 17:01

Section

Question Answer
Name four basic carbon monomersNucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars
Name the polymer created when combining multiple nucleotidesNucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
Name the polymer created when combining multiple amino acidsProteins
Name the polymer created when combining multiple fatty acidsLipids (hydrophobic)
Name the polymer created when combining multiple sugarscarbohydrates
What do lipids do?They seal the cell by holding water in and they contribute to hormones
Why does the body require carbohydrates?For energy
Name three components of intracellular and extracellular fluidsGasses, nutrients and inorganic compounds
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Section

Question Answer
What is in the cell nucleus?Genetic material - chromosomes, strands of DNA
What is cytoplasm?A jelly like structure that contains a number of structures
Which cytoplasmic structure provides energy?Mitochondria
What is the purpose of the golgi apparatus?Storage and packing transfer
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do?Synthesis and release of fatty acids, protein and calcium
Which cytoplasmic structure is necessary for the disposal of debris and waste from a cell?Lysosomes
What is the purpose of the centrioles?Reproduction
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Section

Question Answer
What is the cell membrane made of?Phospholipids
What are ion channels made of?Proteins
What is the purpose of an ion channel?It opens/closes by either being responsive to ions or the charge brought by the ions
The cell membrane is selectively permeable. What is it permeable to?Water-soluble substances and inorganic ions
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Section

Question Answer
Where do you find epithelial tissue?Lining things like the mouth lining, lung lining, skin, etc.
Name the three shapes of epithelial tissueSquamous, cuboidal and columnar
How much extracellular material is there between layers of epithelial tissue?Limited
What is the epithelium?The outer 'skin' and membranes continuous with the skin, eg. outer ear canal, lining of digestive/respiratory system etc.
What is the endothelium?The lining of blood and lymph cells
Describe the endotheliumVery smooth
Where would you find the mesothelium?Between the epithelium and endothelium
What is another name for the mesothelium?Serous membrane
What does the mesothelium do?Secretes serous fluid
Where in the body is there mesothelium?Lining of internal body cavities (Pericardial, two pleural, peritoneal)
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Section

Question Answer
What is the function of connective tissue?It provides shape and support and holds things together
What kind of extracellular substances are there for connective tissue?Protein fibres (collagen), non-protein ground substance, fluid
Describe loose connective tissueIt fills spaces
Give two functions of loose connective tissueAreolar and adipose
Give an example of dense connective tissueCollagen or elastic
What type of connective tissue is cartilage?Specialised
Describe hyaline cartilageStrong and flexible, found in the larynx and nose
Describe cartilages in boneDense outer later, spongy inner layer
Name three types of specialised connective tissue in jointsFibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
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Section

Question Answer
What type of tissue is muscle tissue?Contractile
What type of muscle tissue has fasciculi?Striated/Skeletal
Where in muscle tissue will you find fasciculi?Encased in the perimysium and epimysium
Where is smooth muscle tissue?Visceral organs and blood vessels
What type of muscle tissue is cardiac muscle tissue?Striated
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Section

Question Answer
What are glial cells?Support cells
What do glial cells cover?Neurons
What is the purpose of glial cell insulation?Faster conduction
What type of glial cells perform phagocytosis?Schwann cells
What is the purpose of microglia?Repair
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Section

Question Answer
What is a multipolar neuron?One axon and multiple dendrite
What is a bipolar neuron?One axon and one dendrite
Where would you find a bipolar neuron?Cochlea
What is a unipolar neuron?A single axon
Where would you find a unipolar axon?Dorsal root ganglia
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Section

Question Answer
What is efferent information?Leaving sources and moving out to the periphery (motor)
What is afferent information?Periphery back to source (sensory)
Describe a type A axonLarge and myelinated
What type of transfers occur in a type A axon?Somatic, efferent and afferent
What are type A axons involved in?Speech
Describe a type B axonMedium, slightly myelinated, slower than type A
What type of transfers occur in type B axons?Autonomic NS, afferent from viscera
Describe a type C axonSmall, unmyelinated, slow
What are type C axons involved in?Autonomic afferent information (touch, temperature, pressure, pain)
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Section

Question Answer
Axons are encased inEndoneurium
Bundles of nerve fibres are calledFascicles
Fascicles are encased inPerineurium
Fascicles group to formA nerve
Nerves are encase inEpineurium
How does nervous tissue transmit chemical information?Neurotransmitters
Where does chemical transfer occur?At the boundaries between neurons
How does nervous tissue transmit information electrically?Action potentials
Where does electrical information transfer take place?Within the neuron
Describe the components of a neuromuscular junctionMotor neuron and it's muscle fibres make up a motor unit
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Section

Question Answer
Action potentials arePropagated along a neuron
Positive ions startOutside the neuron
Negative ions startInside the neuron
The typical resting potential is-70mV
The inflow of _____ ions causes _____Positive ions and depolarisation
Depolarisation causesIon channels in the next section to open
What propagates the action potential?Ion channels opening and depolarisation
What happens to ion channels after depolarisation?They close quickly
What is the refectory period?Ion channels are unable to respond for a while after closing
What happens after the refectory period?The ion pump restarts negative resting potential
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Section

Question Answer
What does depolarisation do at the end of an axon?It opens calcium channels
What does the influx of calcium ions trigger?Neurotransmitters from synoptic vesicles
What do neurotransmitters do?Open ion channels permitting depolarisation or hyper polarisation in the next neuron
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