Anatomy 2 - Ruminant Thorax

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:13


Question Answer
wheres the diaphragmatic line of plural reflection in ox?curvature from 7th/8th costochondral jxn to midportion of 11th rib to angle of last rib
goat diaphragmatic line of plural reflection?It is more gentle of a slope goat: 6th costochondral junction, up to the ventral border of the last rib. ( memory aid: goats "evil" = 6.)
sheep diaphragmatic line of plural reflectionIt is more gentle of a slope sheep: from 9th costochondral junction to the middle of the last rib,and from there to the cranial border of the transverse process of L1. ( memory aid: sheep good, opposite goat. goat = 6 sheep =9 )
describe mediastinum of ox/goat? sheep? dog/horse?ox/goat: thick and intact. sheep: occasional opening. Dog/horse: weak
where is the caudal mediastinum, and why?displaced to the left because of the large right lung.
why is the caudal mediastinum clinically important in ox?accessory lobe of rt. lung and mediastinal recess caudally to reticulum (HARDWARE DISEASE)
what is the cupula plurae? ruminant species difference in relation to this?cranial limit of pleural sacs. in rumi. only RT sac extends beyond 1st rib
where to perform thoracocentesis?lowest safe point in standing position (middle of 6th or 7th intercostal space for rumi)
what specie(s) has a well lobulated lung?cow and pig. Cow is most.
lobes of right lung?cranial, middle, caudal, accessory. (RUMI: [not pig] Cranial split to cranio-cranial and caudo-cranial)
What is a tracheal bronchus? what does it supply? clin sig?bronchi directly from trachea, supplies rt cranial lung lobe in rumi and pig. predisposition to infection and pneumonia
left lung lobes?cranial and caudal. Rumi AND pig: cr. lobe split to cranio-cranial and caudo-cranial (left split pig AND cow, bc left wants to be big like right...rumi and pig bc tracheal bronchus)
where are rumi. cardiac notches/incisures?left: 3rd to 5th intercostal space. right: 3rd and 4th intercostal spaces
what are the lung fields? which do we use and what are it's boundaries?cranial and caudal. we use caudal, bounded by triceps cranially and epaxials dorsally
Azygous vein has what charateristic?Valveless!
Rumi/pig has what azygos vein?Left azygos. occasionally cranial (partial) portion of rt. will devolop (greedy pigs-- and cows. ha. )
sheep and goat have what azygos?left, OCCASIONALLY right is fully present (memory aid: sheep go to heaven, goats go to hell. both sold their souls for a possible extra azygous)
position of heart?between ribs 3-6. median in postion, apex inclined to the left (caudo-ventrally)
postion of heart between species?rumi: vertically. pig/dog: oblique 45*
where is the cardiac field?left side, 3-5 intercostal spaces
what is cartilago cordis? ossa cordis?fibrous rings surrounding aorta in the hearts skeleton. larger one is with rt valve. ossa = when ossifies in rumi.
sulci of heart?paraconal, subsinusoidal, and intermediate (see notes for picture)
what attaches the pericardium to the sternum, in what species?sternopericardiac ligaments, rumi and horse (big animals need a big anchor)
pericardiocentesis where?4th intercostal space (level of costochondral jxn)
locations of heart valves?PAM-T (3,4,5-4)
cranial running artery from ascending aorta?brachiocephalic trunk
coronary artery species diffs?rumi/dog: left is large. pig/horse: right is large (memory aid: need the "right" "pH" for the heart to work)
4 lymphocenters are?dorsal thoracic, ventral thoracic, mediastinal, bronchial
dorsal thoracic lymph center contains:intercostal lnn(constant in ox), thoracic aortic lnn (variable)
ventral thoracic lymph center contains:cranial-sternal lnn (all species), caudal sternal lnn. (all species, constant in rumi, +/- in pig)
mediastinal lymph center contains:cranial: all species, lg in ox. middle: absent in pig can be large in ox. CAUDAL: between aorta and esophagus, enlarged can impinge upon these. single and Lg in rumi.
Broncial LNNs? left tracheobronchial (enlargement might pressure L. reccurent laryngeal n), right tracheobronchial, middle trachiobronchial. **Cranial tracheobronchial (Rumi and pig only) on tracheal bronchus
what is lymphadenitis?enlarged ln
what is the plica vena cava? what does it form? what side is it on?the pleural fold which extends from the mediastinum to the caudal vena cava...contains phrenic n. and caudal vena cava. forms the mediasteinal recess. on the right side.
what are not in the mediasteinum of the thorax?lungs, phrenic n. and caudal vena cava