Anatomy 2 - Ruminant Thoracic Limb

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:11


Question Answer
what are the two scapular modifications in ruminants? (1) tuber spinae (in middle of spine, poorly developed in ox) (2) scapular cartilage (prominent in ungulates)
clavicle in ruminants is--absent
where is the greater tubercle of the humerus in rumi? what does it look like?higher than head of humerus. Has a Cr and Ca part. (cr portion rounder)
describe lesser tubercle in ruminants?like the greater, it has cr and ca parts
why are oxen knock-kneed?(medial angulation of carpus) distal end of radius shows 3 oblique facets distomedially on carpal articular surface
the ulna in the cow is...fused to the radius
carpal bones of rumi? (# in prox, # in distal, names)(6 bones) PROX:(4) radial carpal, intermediate carpal, ulnar carpal, accessory carpal. DIST:(2) (1 is lost) Cp2+3 (fused), Cp4
carpal bones of the pig?(all bones=8) PROX: radial carpal, intermediate carpal, ulnar carpal, accessory carpal. DIST: Cp 2,3,4,5
metacarpal bones in rumi? (absent, present, fused? weight bearing?)Mc 1 and 2 ABSENT. 3 and 4 fused (cannon bone), 5 rudimentary. WEIGHT BEARING= 3+4.
topography of distal weight bearing metacarpals?Mc3+4(cannon) has dorsal/palmar longitudinal grooves, prox/distal metacarpal canals, distal intercapitular notch (see pic)
names for prox,middle, and distal phalanges? what sections does a phalanx have?os compedale (prox), os coronale (middle), os ungulare (distal). Each has a base, body, and head
Ox has which phalanges?no 1st digit, 2 is "paradigit" (no MCs, just vestiges of irregular bone), 3+4 FUNCTIONAL digits, 5 is "paradigit"
surfaces and process(+what attaches to process?) of distal phalanx?(1) parietal surface (makes contact with hoof wall) (2) solear surface (contact with sole) (3) extensor process (proximocranial, for insertion of common digital extensor m)
sesmoids of rumi feet?2 proximal (@metacarpophalageal joint) and 1 distal(distal interphalangeal) PER FUNCTIONAL DIGIT (ie: 2 digits)
external mm of pectoral girdle? specifically, ZEBU HUMP (location/composition)mm mass in BOS INDICUS from T1-T5. MMs are (1) rhomboideus (main one)(cervical and thoracic, no cephalic) (2) trapezius (3) latissimus
biceps brachii m...what bursa? where? extension of what in who?intertubercular bursa in intertubercular groove. extension of shoulder joint capsule in SHEEP/DOG. SEPARATE in OX/HORSE
what is the lacertus fibrosus? where? why? who well developed? who not well developed?tendinous band from biceps origin to deep fascia of extensor carpi radialis. KEEPS SHOULDER/CARPAL JOINTS IN EXTENSION with minimal mm effort when limb bears weight. SHEEP/GOAT well devoloped, poorly devoloped in OX.
noteable about triceps in sheep?accessory head is present, as in dog
bursas related to triceps?synovial bursa between tendon and olecranon, and SQ
mm absent in rumis of radio-ulnar joint?brachioradialis, supinator and pronator
noteable about pronator teres in rumis?mostly fibrous, acts as collateral lig. of cubital joint (I think medial one)
where do the functional extensors of digit and carpus arise from?lateral humeral epicondyle (EXTEND "L"EG)
where do the functional flexors of digit and carpus arise from?medial humeral epicondyle (Flex "M"uscles)
body weight supporting function of mm of carpus/digits makes them ___, and are (list)FIBROUS, interosseus, CDE, LDE, SDF, DDF
describe fascia of carpal/digital area. what does it form?mm of forearm invested by well formed ANTIBRACHIAL FASCIA- this continues distally as DORSAL/PALMAR fascia, which form EXTENSOR/FLEXOR retinacula
metacarpophalangeal joint aka?fetlock
prox interphalangeal joint aka?pastern
distal interphalangeal joint aka?coffin joint
where would you perform an arthrocentesis on the shoulder?into joint capsule at cr edge of infraspinatus
where is the intertubercular bursa? associated with what joint?shoulder(synovial bal and socket)-- find the cr edge of deltoid tuberosity, directed proximally between bone and biceps m.
elbow joint type? components of elbow(cubital) collateral ligaments? origin etc(compound synovial hinge joint) L and M each has 2 divisions-- short and long branch. Long=superficial and medially represents pronator teres m
arthrocentesis of cubital joint?cr edge of lateral collateral lig. OR ca sac of joint capsule OR between lateral collateral and humeral epicondyle
carpal joint type?composite (compound) joint
three component joints of carpus are?antebrachiocarpal joint, middle carpal joint, carpometacarpal joint
things to know about antebrachiocarpal joint?most volumunous, greatest amount of movement. (so most susceptible to injury and inflammation)
what to know about carpometacarpal joint?minimal mobilty (essentially a plane joint)
of thoracic limb, which joints have a joint capsule?all 3 are synovial joints
how is the joint capsule united and divided in the carpus?common superficial fibrous layer for all 3 joints. 3 sacs of synovial layer, BUT synovial layer divided like this-- antebrachocarpal is most extensive. middle and distal carpal sacs COMMUNICATE (between 3 + 4)
collateral ligaments of carpus- divisions? where? which is better developed and why?lateral and medial. both are divided into short (between rows) and long (runs though full distance). knock-kneed means more strain medially means medial collateral is better developed
aside from collaterals, what other ligaments in carpus?dorsal+palmar intercarpal ligaments. Accessory carpal ligaments to ulna, radius, and metacarpals (dorsally-- maybe palmarlly? )
noteable about which intercarpal ligament of the carpus? why?palmar carpal lig. extremely strong, prevents carpal overextension, forms deep wall of carpal canal, and partly cartilagenous so DDF glides smoothly over it
arthrocentesis of carpus- which two joint cavities open widely, dorsally, upon flexion? site of insertion of needle where?radiocarpal and middle. insertion easily palpated on either side of extensor carpi radialis m
how do you inject distal cavity of the carpus?just inject middle cavity, communicates with distal
where else can you inject the antebrachiocarpal jont? benefit of this?lateral aspect, just prox to accessory carpal bone. (animal standing, so no damage to articular cartilage.)
with what do the 2 (per digit) proximal sesmoid bones articulate with?palmar aspect of metacarpal condyle NOT PROX PHALANX
what is the most worked joint of the limb? usual position of it?fetlock. normally slightly over-extended
arangements for joint capsules of digits?SEPARATE JOINT CAPSULES for digit 3+4 (despite fact metacarpals fused). however capsules fuse AXIALLY (so cavities communicate) Capsule forms recesses dorsally and palmarly
how does the fetlock joint capsule communicate with various adj synovial structures?via the dorsal recess of the connected 3+4digit capsule
ligaments of fetlock joint?axial and abaxial collateral ligaments, sesmoid ligaments (prox middle distal)
two things about the proximal sesmoidean ligaments?(1) interosseus m fxn as a ligament (2) extensor slips go to common digital extensor (digit 3) and lateral digital extensor (5)
ligament of proximal interdigital space...charateristics? noteable species diff?prox interdigital lig. strong, in interdigital space, connect axial surfaces of prox palalnges. hold digits together with the distal interdigital lig (so dont splay) ABSENT IN SHEEP!!!!!
arthrocentesis of fetlock- where?proximal to fetlock, between metacarpus and interosseus m
what must be considered in a dew-claw amputation?joint capsule of pastern bulges and forms recesses prox and distally on dorsal surface of joint, which are extensive and could be cut on accident in dew claw removal
ligaments of pastern?axial and abaxial collateral ligs
what ligaments of the pastern go from palmar surface of P1 to prox. palmar surface of P2?axial-intermediate and abaxial palmar ligs (cow standing in BP oil)
location of joint capsule of coffin joint?dorsal recess lying prox to coronet of hoof
ligmanets of coffin joint which go from distal ends of P2 and prox ends of P3?axial and abaxial ligs
noteable about the composition of the sesmoidean ligs of the coffin joint? what are the name of them?ELASTIC axial/abaxial /collateral/ sesmoidean AND axial and abaxial /distal/ sesmoidean ligaments. (collateral=nav bone to P2) (distal= nav bone to P3)
DISTAL INTERDIGITAL LIGAMENT- does? parts? how do the parts run?prevents splaying of digits, strong, SUPERFICIAL and DEEP part. (superficial= abaxial palmar prominance of P2 over DDF to distal sesmoid bone of OPPOSITE digit) (Deep= runs directly across interdigital space from distal surface of P2 to opposite P3 and nav bone)