Anatomy 2 - Ruminant + Pig Abdomen 1

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:17

Section 1

Question Answer
Most clinically important part of bovine abdominal wallparalumbar fossa (immediately caudal to last rib)
superficial fascia of trunk (2 muscles and their derivations / origins) 1) cranial preputial mm. derived from cutaneous trunci 2) caudal preputial mm. originating from deep fascia
deep fascia of the trunk: covers or surrounds what? also known as?(surrounds EAO and IAO, covers only external xverse ab. and rectus ab.) AKA Yellow abdominal tunic
why is the yellow abdominal tunic "yellow" and why is it so important?yellow from elastic components, gives integrity and support to the heavy ventral aspect of ungulates
3 major nerves/groups of nerves for abdomen?1) costoabdominal n. 2) dorsal cutaneous nn. 3) ventral branches of lumbar spinal nn.
what area must you block for flank sx? what do these nerves innervate?T13-L2 ventral branches (cranial preputial)...innervate peritoneum, abdominal mm. and skin
T13 n. = name? (2 names) supplies? where to block?costoabdominal n. ventral cutaneous n. supplies preputial skin and mucous membrane of prepuce. Inject under tip of L1 xverse process
L1 n. = name? where do you block it?Illiohypogastric n. inject below tip of L2 xverse process
dorsal cutaneous nn. innervate?skin of dorsal 1/3 of abdomen
L2 = name? where do you block it?Ilioinguinal n. inject ventral to tip of L4
L3 = name? where do you block it?genitofemoral n. inject caudally close to vertebral bodies (palpate spinous process instead of xverse to inject there)
innervation to mammary gland is?SYMPATHETIC
what are the cranial preputial nerves? what do they supply?T13, L1, L2.. innervate ventral abdominal skin, prepuce, and scrotum
middle preputial nerves are? innervates what? where/what does it come from?innervates the prepuce, scrotum and inguinal skin (L2, //L3//, L4...genitofemoral n.)
which nerves supply skin of cranial surface of udder in the cow?L1 and L2 (Iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal)
what nerve is "L3", what does it supply?(genitofemoral n.) skin of middle of udder and ALL GLANDULAR TISSUE of udder (therefore carried sympathetic fibers)
where are the subiliac lymph nodes (ruminants)on cr. border of tensor fasciae latae m., proximal to stifle joint. ((used to be called prefemoral, now subiliac)

Section 2

Question Answer
name all sections of forestomach and true stomach rumen, reticulum, omasum = forestomach. Abomasum= true stomach.
which 2 forestomach portions are the fermentation vats? how do they connect with themselves and others?rumen and reticulum (together a biological unit, the ruminoreticulum), separated from abomasum by the "lock gate" omasum
where does the rumen lie on the median plane?to the left of it
the rumen extends from where to where? (cranial and caudal boundaries)diaphragm to pelvic inlet
the rumen's borders, dorsally and ventrally? dorsal: hypaxial lumbar mm. ventral: abdominal floor (attached here)
which ruminal surface is parietal and which is visceral? parietal: left. Visceral: right
what are the grooves of the rumen?L and R longitudinal grooves. Cr and Ca transverse grooves. L and R accessory grooves. dorsal and ventral coronary grooves(R+L) (ruminoreticular groove)
what divides the dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen?L and R longitudinal grooves- and -cranial and caudal transverse grooves
which accessory groove of the rumen is poorly developed? right accessory groove
rumen's dorsal and ventral coronary grooves demarcate what? blind sacs-- caudodorsal and caudoventral blind sacs
what bounds the insular ruminis of the rumen? what side is it on?R longitudinal and R accessory grooves. insular ruminis is on the right side.
where is the atrium ruminis of the rumen?cranial part of dorsal sac
where is the recessus ruminis of the rumen?cranial part of ventral sac
what are the grooves of the rumen defined as internally? pillars/columns
what are ruminal pillars?infoldings of ruminal wall (no serosa though). thickened parts of muscular wall, NO PAPILLAE
does the ruminoreticular fold have papillae?yes-- many.
name the ruminal pillars. which is incomplete?cranial pillar, caudal pillar, right and left longitudinal pillars, ruminoreticular fold (right pillar is incomplete)
what is the opening between the dorsal and ventral ruminal sacs? intraruminal ostium
what is the opening between the rumen and reticulum?ruminoreticular ostium
what is trocarization? where is it done?ruminal paracentisis, central part of paralumbar fossa
where would a ruminotomy for hardware disease be done?paralumbar fossa into dorsal (+/- caudodorsal blind) sac
another name for the rumenpaunch
where is the stomach attached? hypaxial lumbar muscles (dorsally) and to the abdominal floor ventrally

Section 3

Question Answer
what are the omenta? how many leaves do they have?superficial and deep leaf of greater omentum. 2 leaves each. there is also lesser omentum
coverage of superficial omenta? (boundaries)caudal: greater curvature of abomasum. ventral: ventral border descending duodenum (then more ventrally to the left). dorsal: attach to atrium ruminis and ruminal left longitudinal groove.
where is the superficial leaf continuous with the deep leaf omentum?caudal groove of rumen (also ventral duodenum? )
coverage of deep omenta? (boundaries)cranial to R ruminal longitudinal groove up to R surface of atrium ruminis. then moves to the right, up to abdominal roof, then attaches to superficial leaf and ventral surface of descending duodenum up to caudal duodenal flexure
supraomental recess formed by what?deep leaf
why is the omentum important during disease?in case of infection, "police of abdomen" (can produce some WBCs in infection)
what bursa is formed by the superficial and deep leaf?omental bursa.
omental bursa communicates through?epiploic foramen
would you see the omasum on the right side of the animal?no, b/c lesser omentum covers it
where is omental bursa?space between superficial and deep layers of greater omentum
where is supraomental recess?space in the peritoneal cavity dorsal to deep leaf (bordered by rumen on left, descending duodenum on right)
structures indenting omental bursa?ventral sac of the rumen
structures in the supraomental recessintestines, gravid (3rd trimester) uterus
ruminants lack what recess?splenic recess (the extension of the omental bursa toward the hilum of the spleen)
pigs lesser omentum is similar to what animal's?dogs
lesser omentum borders in ruminants?from lesser curvature of abomasum to curvature and neck of omasum, dorsally to visceral surface liver

Section 4

Question Answer
what is the most cranial part of the forestomach?reticulum
what are the cr and ca surfaces of the reticulum?cr= diaphragmatic and ca= visceral
what is the free ventral part of the reticulum?the fundus of the reticulum
opening between reticulum and omasum is called?reticulo-omasal ostium
the reticular groove is a portion of what other groove?gastric groove
describe mucosa of reticulumhas reticular cells (honeycombed shape) lined with conical reticular papillae
gastric groove from where to where?starts at cardia (esophageal opening) to pyloris of abomasum
3 segments of gastric groove arereticular groove, omasal groove, abomasal groove
purpose of gastric groove?bypass rumen, reticulum and omasum because milk cannot be digested in the forestomach
which portion of the gastric groove is most devoloped?reticular groove
path of reticular groove?from cardia, on lesser curvature (right wall), to reticulo-omasal orifice (less can be groovy too)
components of the reticular groove?a floor and two lips (L and R )
what do the lips of the reticular groove do?form a tube
how does the gastric tube form? in babies? in adults?babies: neurohumoral action. adults: iatrogenically via administration of salts (copper sulfates in sheep, in cow 10% sodium bicarbonate)
where do you auscultate for hardware disease?ascult reticulum at ventral aspects of left 6th or 7th intercostal spaces
another name for the omasum?manyplies
where does the omasum lie in relation to the median plane?right
omasum's two surfaces are described asparietal and visceral
where is the curvature of the omasum?convex and on the right
where is the base of the omasum?left and cranioventral (omasum is on the right, however)
what covers the omasum on the right side?lesser omentum
what structure is at the omasal-abomasal orifice?the transverse omasal pillar
what is/are the abomasal vela?mucosal folds that guard the omasal-abomasal opening
spaces between omasal leaves are called?interlaminar recesses
folds of omasum called?omasal laminae
what does the omasal groove join together?reticulo-omasal ostium to the omaso-abomasal ostium
name the 2 surfaces and 4 portions, and two curvatures of the abomasumsurfaces: parietal and visceral. curvatures: greater and lesser. sections: fundus, body, pyloris, and pyloric part
where are the abomasal folds and how do they run?in the fundus and the body, they run obliquely
what is on the lesser curvature of the abomasum?abomasal groove (less is groovy!)
how would the torus pyloricus be described?projection from lesser curvature
what does the torus pyloricus work do what? where does it come from?with the pyloric sphincter, to regulate flow from abomasum to duodenum, it is a projection from the lesser curvature
describe the papillae of the rumen?esp. in the blind sacs, ABSENT from roof (except in sheep, maybe goat) and abesnt on the pillars
what are reticular cells formed by?reticular crests-- floors and edges of cells have reticular papillae
describe omasal papillae?on the laminae
special papillae of bovine (location, description)?on the reticulo-omasal ostium and floor of reticular groove (so, only in region of R-O opening) have claw like projections-- UNGUICULIFORM PAPILLAE
two types of ruminants based on feeding habits?grazers or browsers
which ruminants forestomach is smaller, based on feeding habits?browsers, because leaves are more nutritious and have less fiber (therefore less need to ferment)
which ruminants have larger livers/intestines, based on feeding habits?browsers, because their food is more nutritious so more liver/intestine processing takes place (cecum and ascending colon larger, ruminal papillae more numerous and evenly distributed)
where does the pigs stomach lie? how big is it?left, in thoracic cage. large.
where is the pigs stomachs parietal surface?related to diaphragm dorsally, liver cranially
where is the pigs stomachs visceral surface?related to the ascending colon
what is the unique structure of the pig stomach? what other structure is there, shared with rumi.?diverticulum ventriculi (near cardia). torus pyloricus (pyloris).
what does the pigs stomach contact when it is full?both sides of median plane of ventral abdominal wall
another name for the reticulumhoneycomb

Section 5

Question Answer
where are the small intestines located?displaced to the right by the rumen, mainly in supraomental recess
what is the diameter of the cows small intestine? horses?cow = small horse = big
where is the most variable region of intestines between species?ascending colon
what are the "bands" in the large intestine? what species have them?taeniae coli, horse and pig ("pH") but NOT ruminant
where does the cecum lie?right of median plane
parts of cecum?base, body and apex
describe ruminant cecum?cylindrical, smooth, tubular, long, blind sac
describe pig cecum location and direction?caudoventrally directed, dorsal to cone of ascending colon
who has a sacculated large intestine? what are the pouches caused by sacculation?horse and pig--- haustra are the pouches
how many parts are in the ascending colon of the rumi?3
3 portions of the rumi ascending colon?proximal loop(aka sigmoid flexure), spiral loop, and distal loop
what are the portions of the spiral loop of the ascending colon? how many for each species?centripital and centrifugal coils. ox= 2.5 each. sheep = 3 each. goat = 4 each.
what is the portion where the centripial and centrifugal spiral colon meet?central flexure
how does the last centrifugal coil run? what does it then form?dorsally and caudally, to level of 2nd flexure of prox. loop... then formed distal loop.
how does the distal loop of the colon run?continues cranially to become transverse colon
only portion of the Lg intestine with a considerable diameter (rumi)?cecum
where does the jejunal LNs lie in bovine?between coils of jejunum and last centrifugal coil
where do the jejunal LNs lie in the sheep/goat?between last centrifugal coil and first centripital coil.
what causes the descending colon to appear beaded in the sheep/goat?because of fecal pellets
shape of the ascending colon in pigs?conical spiral
where is the apex of the conical spiral of the pig colon?ventral in region of left abdominal wall (left a tornado in the pigs body)
which portions of the pig colon are sacculated?centripital are sacculated (have 2 taenia coli, and therefore haustra are formed) centrifugals are smooth (so FUckin smooth)
where does the pigs colon lie in relation to the median plane?left

Section 6

Question Answer
the major features of the ruminant liver?left lobe, right lobe, caudate lobe, quadrate lobe, esophagal groove, groove for caudal vena cava, attachment of gall bladder (notch for gall bladder), attachment of falciform/round ligament (notch for round ligament)
what are the divisions of the L and R lobes of the liver, depending on the species?lateral and medial
what are the divisions of the caudate lobe of the liver, depending on the species?caudate process, papillary process
where is the ruminant liver located?right to the median plane and rotated 90* (obliquely in abdominal part of thoracic cage)
two sides of the liver?visceral and diaphragmatic
where is the left lobe of the ruminant liver?cranioventral (left goes down)
where is the right lobe of the ruminant liver?craniodorsal (right goes up)
is external lobulation evident on a ruminant liver?no...only indication by presence of round ligament of the liver.
describe the papillary process? of what lobe?small and ill defined....caudate lobe
describe the species differences in the esophageal groove?deep in ox, shallow in sheep (ox eats big food, leaves big impression! S-S )
species differences in gall bladder?ox is pear shaped, sheep is elongated (cows are curvy pear shapes)
four impressions on the liver?abomasal impression, omasal impression, duodenal impression, reticular impression