Anatomy 2 - Ruminant Pelvis 1

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:14


Question Answer
what is the slope of the pelvis? what is the angle of the slope? slope is between tuber coxae and tuber ischium. 45*
how do the iliac shafts compare to one another?parallel
how would you describe the bovine tuber ischiadicum?trifed (3 pointed)
what is the "lunate face" and how is it divided?acetabulum, into 2 portions, major and minor
how would the pelvic floor be described?concave / dished out
how does ovine pelvis differ from bovine?iliac shafts are slender and nearly straight, tuber ischiadicum is pronounced and laterally oriented
what are the two major sexual differences of the pelvis?shorter/stouter ilium in male. wider greater ischiadic notch in female.
3 measurements used to eval birth canal(1) transverse diameter (2) conjugate diameter (3) vertical diameter
where is the transverse diameter?widest point if you drew a line horizontally through the birth canal, just above acetabula (shaft of ilium)
where is the conjugate diameter?line that extends from the PECTEN to the SACRAL PROMONTORY (the widest vertical line through the birth canal-- SLANTED LINE)
what is the pecten?ridge near pubic symphysis
what is the sacral promontory?cranial portion of S1
where is the vertical diameter?from the pecten of the pubis to the ventral surface of the sacrum or cd1 vertebrae. perpendicular to pelvic floor. (completely vertical line, conjugate is slanted compared to it)
what is the pelvic inclination?angle near pecten between the conjugate and vertical diameters of the birth canal
what is the pelvic axis?median line drawn between pelvic surface of sacrum and dorsal surface of pelvic symphysis (in cow, NOT a straight line. basically the path a baby would pass along)
what is the pelvic inclination in the cow? how would you describe it?45* ---quite high
level of pecten of pubis in cow?s2/s3
in the cow, what is the orientation of the pelvic INlet? another name for pelvic inlet?cranioventral. pelvic inlet aka cranial pelvic aperture
two words to describe cranial pelvic inlet of cow? what does this mean for parturition?oval and narrow-- baby can get stuck
how would you describe the roof of the pelvic cavity in the cow?it is CONCAVE
how would you describe the pelvic OUTlet of the cow? why is it this way?it is small, because the concave sacrum and tail, AND the high, large ischiadic tuberosities impinge upon the opening
what are the lateral pelvic walls formed from in the cow?iliac shafts and SACROTUBERAL LIGAMENTS.
how would you describe the pelvic cavity floor in the the cow?concave/dished
what is the orientation of the table (flat part) of the ischium in the cow?it slopes sharply and caudodorsally
in the goat/ewe, what are the iliac shafts like? how are the ischiadic spines/tuberosities? what is the pelvic floor like?LONG illiac shafts. Ischiadic spines/tuberosities are slightly devoloped. pelvic floor is FLAT/HORIZONTAL
in ewe/goat, where is the level of the pecten?Cd2, Cd3 (therefore long conjugate diameter)
how would you describe the sacrosciatic ligaments in the sow? the birthcanal?liagment is well formed, the birthcanal is almost straight and craniocaudally oriented
what is given credit for the sow having a large birthcanal?the conjugata (conjugate diameter?) is almost horizontal
when can you rectally palpate pigs?when they are large
what is the perineum? aka?caudal wall closing off the pelvic outlet (caudal pelvic aperture)
how is the anal region/triangle of the perineum separated from the urogenital region/triangle?drawing a line between the tubera ischiadica
borders of the perineum?caudal vertebrae (tail), caudal borders of sacrotuberal ligaments, ischiadic tubers and ischiadic arch
what is the anal triangle closed off by? what is this structure composed of?closed off by the pelvic diaphragm...P.D. is made of coccygeus m. and levator ani m. ( and the internal/external deep fasciae + external anal sphincter)
what is the urogenital triangle closed off by?perineal membrane and urogenital muscles
where is the perineal membrane in the cow?deep perineal fascia running between ischial arch and ventro-lateral wall of the vestibule
what are the urogenital muscles?constrictor vestibuli, constrictor vulvae, retractor clitoridis
what is the perineal BODY? why do we care?a FIBROMUSCULAR MASS that lies between anus and urogenital tract. need to suture this well when a fetus foot goes through it--muscles will contract to open the injury so need to be well sutured
what are the two important perineal muscles?Retractor penis m, ischiocavernosus m.
important info on retractor penis m?(see drawing in notes) SMOOTH m.. Rectal part (attach laterally to rectum) and Penile part (runs over root and surface of body of penis to insert distally on tunica albuginea, doesn't follow sigmoid flexure of penis)
important info on ischiocavernosus m?(see drawing in notes) invests the root of the penis. indents medial aspect of thigh muscles -- used to SEX DRESSED CARCASS
describe the gluteals in cows. what muscle is absent?SMALL gluteals. superficial gluteal is SMALL and fuses with bicepts femoris (GLUTEOBICEPS m.). Cows LACK an INTERNAL obturator
what is the internal obturator like in the cow? external?INTERNAL ABSENT. instead, external has INTRAPELVIC and EXTRAPELVIC portions. external originates from ventral and dorsal surfaces of ischium and pubis.
why is the rump of the bovine concave?b/c hamstring muscles have no vertebral heads (except gluteobiceps, and only bc it's fused to the sup. glut. m. )
what are the 4 fossas of the pelvic cavity? know their location on picture in notes.pararectal fossa, retrogenital, genitovesicular, pubovesicular
what is the urethral recess? what opens into it? in which animals? why do we care?blind sac in dorsal wall at pelvic-penile junction of urethra. bulbourethral gland opens into its cranial portion. BULLS AND RAMS. it is a second obstacle in catheterization (after sigmoid flexure)
what is the suburethral diverticulum? who has it? what does it share?FEMALE RUMIs have it. shares a common opening with urethra into vaginal vestibule
scrotum hair in bull? boar? sm. rumis?bull= glabrous (no/fine hair). boar= glabrous. sm. rumis= short hairs.
how does the scrotum hang in ruminants?vertically elongated and pendulous (between thighs) so dont look for the scrotum near the back of the animal
shape of bovine testis?vertically elongated/ oval or bottle shaped
how does the epididymus lie in bovine? the portions of it? color of parenchyma?EPI IS MEDIAL. also HEAD(caput) is proximal and covers dorsal 1/3 of prox end of testis. TAIL(cauda) is distal and LARGE. YELLOW parenchyma
shape of testis in ovine?oval to spherical (rounder than bulls), pretty large, vertical long axis
how does the epididymus lie in the ovine/caprine? color of parenchyma?lies caudomedially....head(caput) is proximal and covers a considerable part of prox. end. Tail(cauda) is distal **and projects BEYOND testis distally. WHITE parenchyma.
location of testis/scrotum in pig?almost subanal, closely attached to caudal part of thigh. POINTED at both poles. obliquely situated
orientation of epididymus of pig?DORSAL to testis. TAIL is PROXImAL and projects caudodorsally. HEAD is DISTAL and LARGE.
where does the ductus deferens lie?cranial to the mesorchium and medial border of testis.
terminal portion in rumi ductus deferens?terminal portion enlarges and is glandular = AMPULLA of ductus deferens.
what is the ejaculatory duct composed of? where does it open into the urethra?E. duct is the ductus deferens+vesicular duct. it opens into urethra at the COLLICULUS SEMINALIS. (where it "collects" semen)
what is the ejaculatory duct like in the dog?it DOESNT HAVE a ejact. duct, bc it doesnt have a vesicular gland or ampulla
what accessory sex glands do the ruminants have?vesicular gland, prostate gland (only diffuse in sm. rumi), bulbourethral gland, (ampulla)
vesicular gland of ox? of sheep?OX= lobulated and firm, dorsolaterally to neck of bladder, pear shaped. SHEEP= oval, otherwise the same
prostate of ox? sm rumi? OX= transversly oriented body(corpus) and large disseminate part(pars disseminata). SM.RUMI= ONLY DISSEMINATE PART
bulbourethral gland of ox? duct opens where? sm rumi?OX= spherical and up to 3cm in diameter (dorsal part of urethra), SINGLE extretory duct into URETHRAL RECESS. SM.RUMI= same as ox.
what accessory sex gland does the pig lack?ampulla of the ductus deferens
what is the vesicular gland of the pig like?extremely large (up to 17cm long), pyramidal, pink and hard
what is the prostate of the pig like?both body and disseminate part. BODY might be covered by vesicular glands. dessiminate part is LARGE and covered by urethral mm (like in the bull)
what is the bulbourethral gland like in the pig?very large (up to 12cm), cylindrical and cigar shaped
three parts of the penis?root, body and glans
what type of penis do ruminants and pigs have?fibroelastic type (trabeculae and elastic fibers of corpus cavernosum are well devoloped AT EXPENSE OF CAVERNOUS SPACES)
which part of the penis is covered in tunica albuginia?all of it, for the cow.
how long is the bull penis? shape of x-sections? what are the cavernous spaces like?very long, circular x-sections, poorly developed cavernous spaces
what impedes the expansion of the cavernous tissues of the bull penis?the tunics covering the cavernous spaces are fused
what is the S-structure of the bull penis? where is it? why do we care about it?sigmoid flexure in thigh region, caudal to neck of scrotum. CALCULI may lodge at distal end of the flexure
describe the glans penis of the bull?slightly twisted anticlockwise to the left, so urethral groove and penile raphe lie to the RIGHT.
why do we care about the termination of the urethra in the bull? what structure? shape? attachment? clinical importance?URETHRAL PROCESS is tubular, attaches to glans (not free), and NARROW EXTERNAL OPENING = SLOW URINATION
where is the apical ligament of the penis? shape? originates and inserts?cranial, dorsal and beneath the skin. Fan shaped and ASYMMETRIC--THICKER ON LEFT. Originates on tunic albuginea caudally and inserts on free end of penis crainally.
what would cause inhibition of intromission (cant get it in the poon)?asymmetrically devoloped apical ligament (thicker left side) causes erect penis to be twisted. can cause problems and require surgery.
what is unique about the ovine glans penis?raised into a globular and highly cavernous structure
describe the urethral process in the sheep/goat? clinical sig?free and projects past glans (40mm in sheep and 25mm in goat), erectile, can have calculi lodge here. can amputate if its an issue
how to tell a ram from a goat penis?RAM has a TUBERCULUM SPONGIOSUM--a raised, irregular ridge of corpus spongiosum on LEFT part of free end of penis ( Ram has more Raised Ridges)
what are the two parts of the prepuce? describe them? the boundary?(1) external lamina- hairy, continuous with ventral abdominal wall (2) internal lamina. hairless. DIFFERENTIATE at PREPUTIAL ORIFICE where external invaginates to internal.
how long is bull prepuce? what can happen with internal lamina?~40cm long, internal lamina can be exuberantly developed and PROLAPSE through preputial orifice, also can be narrowed and cause lack of penile extension. if lacerated (easy to do) it swells and is retained outside
unique structure of pig prepuce?preputial diverticulum= can smell horrid and must be removed before meat is processed.
describe pig's glans penis?THERE ISNT ONE. just terminal end of penis. spirally shaped.
where is ovary located in ruminants?ventrolateral on border of pelvic inlet (more caudal than dogs etc).
describe cow ovary?small. OVAL (3cm L x 2.5cm W) follicles and corpora lutea project ABOVE the surface
describe pig ovary? location? color of corpora lutea? describe bursa?like a bunch of immature grapes. Oval, numerous protruding follicles and corpora lutea. Close to pelvic inlet (variably sited). whiteish/creamish corpora lutea. bursa is DISTINCT but ovary not fully enclosed.
describe uterus of cow?BICORNUATE (horns dont merge for a long while) and caudal migration of ovary makes uterine horn SPIRALLY shaped
how does the oviduct merge in the cow and sow?gradually tapers, no abrupt insertion.
what is the uterine velum?internally the cranial non-fused parts of the uterine horn that project into the uterine body ("flap of tissue")
what are the intercornuate ligaments? how many? (cow)dorsal and ventral. attach both horns transverely, cranial to uterine velum (ligament between the the horns close to the area about to fuse into the body of the uterus)
three reasons parturition is difficult in a cow?The 3 main reasons for difficulty with parturition in a cow are: (1) cranial pelvic aperture is oval and narrow, (2) pelvic outlet is small, and (3) pelvic cavity floor is concave.
where is the sigmoid flexure in the pig?CRANIAL to scrotum
where can calculi lodge?distal end of sigmoid flexure, urethral process
where is the urethral recess?dorsal wall at junction of pelvic and penile urethra
where is the suburethral diverticulum?shares opening with external urethral opening in vestibule on ventral side
who has the largest uterine horns?sow
paravertebral block aka? proximal paravertebral block
paralumbar block aka?distal paravertebral block
where does ductus deferens attach?tail of epidid.
how many fornices in cow? pig? ewe?cow=2 pig=none ewe=1 (dorsal is counted, ventral is too underdeveloped)
explain why the sow number/location or mammae has a descrepancy in his notes sow mammae= naturally thoracoabdominal w/ 14 teats - due to breeding now thoracoinguinal w/ 18+ teats
dorsal labial & mammary aa contribue where? aka?contribute to caudal mammary aa..... aka perineal braches (from the ventral perianal a)

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