Anatomy 2 - Ruminant Hindlimb

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:12


Question Answer
prox extremity of femur contains (3-4):head (fovea capitis), greater/major trochanter(trochanteric fossa, trochanteric ridge), lesser/minor trochanter(iliopsoas attachment!), third trochanter ABSENT IN RUMINENT
distal extremity of femur contains (4)medial/lateral condyles+epicondyles, trochlea(larger MEDIAL ridge in BOVINE), extensor fossa(lateral), intercondyloid fossa
shape of patella? part of what tendon? how many patellar ligs(bovine)(sm rumi/pig?)triangular, in quad tendon, bovine=3ligs, smrumi+pig=1lig
where is the sulcus muscularis?on tibia, prox end, cranial, kinda between articulations for condyles of femur (I think its on the tibial tuberosity)
fxn of tibial tuberosity?attachment of patellar lig
where is the tibial crest?(see pic) line going down middle of tibia longitudinally/cranially
where are the L and M malleolus bones? L malleolus articulates with tibia and ventrally with fibular tarsal(calcaneus). Medial is fused with tibia. (Medial Melted on) many tarsal bones? what are they?7! Tt, Tf, Tc, T1,2,3,4
rumi tarsal bones. how many and what? how many rows? (LOOK AT PIC)5 tarsals AND L malleolus. (3 rows) PROX ROW: tibial tarsal(talus), fibular tarsal (calcaneous) MDDLE ROW: T Central+4. Distal row: T2+3 and T1
rumi metatarsals?same as front, just more cylindrical and longer---> TWO metatarsals: (1) Large metatarsal (MT 3+4) (2) MT 2 (very small--metatarsal sesamoid)
pig metatarsals?MT 2,3,4,5
mm of pelvic limb--ass/pelvis muscles 3 noteable ones? (more detail on diff cards)gluteobiceps, middle gluteal, LACK OF internal obturator
what pelvic mm is rumi lacking?internal obturator (has intra and extra pelvic portions of external obturator instead)
whats up with the gluteobiceps?its a fused superficial gluteal + biceps femoris
special shit about the middle gluteal m?has a narrow, deep part the ACCESSORY GLUTEALm
wheres the trochanteric bursa?interposed between the gluteobiceps and major trochanter
what would be inflamed on animals that lie on hard surfaces? where is it?Bursa of biceps femoris tendon-- between tendon and lateral epicondyle of femur
why might the obturator nerve be more easily damaged in a rumi?no internal obturator to protect it
3 flexor muscles of tarsal/digital joints he cares about?(1) gastrocnemius (2) soleus (3) SDF
soleus is where, does what, species diff?WELL DEVELOPED IN PIG. lies on lateral head of gastroc, inserts on tendon of gastroc...both together known as TRICEPS SURAE M
what is triceps surae m?gastroc L head + soleus
what is the common calcaneal tendon composed of? (5-6)gracillis, gastroc, SDF, soleus when present, semitendinouses, gluteobiceps
how many calcaneal bursae? where?Three of them. (1) between calcaneal tendon and calcaneal tubercle (2) between gastroctendon of insertion and SDF tendon (3) aquired one between skin and SDF tendon
extensors of tarsus/digits he cares about? (6)(1) long peroneal (2) LDE (lateraldigitalextensor) (3) LDE (longdigitalextensor) (4) SDE(short digital extensor) (5) peroneus tertius** (6) cranial tibial
long digital extensor-- # bellies? insert where?medial belly to digit 2, lateral belly to digit 3
peroneus tertius is fused to? special about its tendon?partly fused to long digital extensor, its tendon is PERFORATED MEDIALLY by cranial tibial m. (long name fused to long muscle)
what does cranial tibial insert on? tendon is special b/c....single tendon perforates peroneus tertius, then inserts on tarsal bone 1 and tarsal bones 2+3 (distal row)
what about the tendon of the short digital extensor?it joins tendon of long digital extensor
flexors of tarsus and digits (3)?(1)SDF (2) DDF (3) interosseus
what about DDF in ungulates?has THREE heads (lateral digital flexor, medial digital flexor, and caudal tibial mms) however, they form one tendon of insertion
in regards to the flexors/extensors of the hind limb...what does the aforementioned action refer to?what the digits do
sacrotuberal lig aka? relative devolopement? is-and where? forms what?(sacrosciatic lig) is very well developed. a connective tissue sheet that runs from sacrum and Cd1+Cd2 verts to ischiadic spine and ischiadic tuberosity...forms WALL OF PELVIC CAVITY in rumi
openings in sacrotuberal lig where and why?openings between lig and greater sciatic notch (greater ischiatic foramen) and lesser sciatic notch (lesser ischiadic foramen) for passage of BVs and NNs
what deepens the acetabulum in ungulates?labrum acetabulare, a well-formed fibrocatilagenous tissue
2 ligs of the prox femur?lig of head of femur, transverse acetabular lig
why is hip location more common in rumis?lig of head of femur isnt very strong
describe lunate face?(acetabulum) has a large(dorsal) and small(cranioventral) articular surface
what is the largest joint of the body?STIFLE
what type of joint is the stifle? made of what?compound (composite) synovial hinge joint. 2 main joints are femoropatellar and femorotibial
joint capsule of femoropatellar joint is what? communicates with?a modified subtendinous bursa underneath the intermediate patellar lig. communicates with medial compartment of femorotibial joint cavity (ALL species)
unique about femorotibial joint capsule?synovial layer is divided into medial and lateral compartments (for corresponding condyles of the femur) USUALLY COMMUNICATE IN THE OX.
where are the medial and lateral menesci?in the femorotibial joint
how would you describe communication of joint cavities of stifle in ox?like a V where all 3 points are connected by 2 lines
what are the femoropatellar ligaments? noteable about them?Medial and Lateral (LAteral is stronger)
patellar ligs are in cow? (pig and sm rumis?)medial, intermediate(middle/straight), and lateral. (in pig/sm rumis, only ONE patellar lig, which corresponds to intermediate of cow)
what do the collateral ligs of the stifile prevent?valgus and varus
what are the cruciate ligaments in? how are they named? do what in general?the intercondylar fossa. named according to their INSERTION on the tibia. prevent excessive sliding of femur relative to tibia
cr cruciate lig origin and insertion?medial surface of femoral condyle to central intercondylar fossa/area of tibia
ca cruciate lig origin and insertion??from lateral surface of medial femoral condyle to popliteal notch and ca intercondylar fossa/area. medial to lateral one
cr cruciate prevents what specifically?prevents cr displacement of tibia away from femoral condyles (cr drawer sign)
ca cruciate prevents what specifically?prevents excessive displacement of tibia caudally (ca drawer sign)
arthrocentesis of femoropatellar joint where?ca to lateral patellar lig, close to the patella
arthrocentesis of lateral compartment of femorotibial joint?between lateral collateral lig and tendon of origin of longDE m (gettin the fluid outta the FT joint is a longggg story)
arthrocentesis of medial compartment of femorotibial joint?medial collateral lig and medial patellar lig
type of joint hock is?(tarsal joint) composite articulation, synovial.
component articulations of hock? most mobile one?(1) tarsocrural**most mobile (2) prox intertarsal (3) distal intertarsal (4) tarsometatarsal
4 main types of ligaments in hock?(1) medial/lateral collateral ligs (2) dorsal tarsal ligs (3) long plantar lig
of the dorsal and and plantar tarsal ligs, which is better devoloped?plantar
long plantar lig (VERY strong!)- where does it run? what does it do?RUNS from plantar surface of calcaneous to lateroplantar surface of tarsus and metatarsus. **STABALIZES the calcanean against the forces exerted by the mm that insert on the tuber calcanei
arthrocentesis of hock?on dorsomedial aspect of joint, distal to medial malleolus and medial to cr tibial mm
structure of fetlock/pastern/coffin joints, ligs, joint capsules, and arthrocentesis centers same as in forelimbYAY